Warehouse commercial other food, feed and technical products
In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by optimizing warehouse management systems, taking into account the estimated remaining shelf life of the product, and matching it to the requirements of the subsequent part of the handling chain. This contribution focuses on how model approaches estimating quality changes and remaining shelf life can be combined in optimizing first-expired-first-out cold chain management strategies for perishable products. To this end, shelf-life-related performance indicators are used to introduce remaining shelf life and product quality in the cost function when optimizing the supply chain. A combinatorial exhaustive-search algorithm is shown to be feasible as the complexity of the optimization problem is sufficiently low for the size and properties of a typical commercial cold chain.
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- Commercial Feed General Information
- Animal by-product categories, site approval, hygiene and disposal
- Food Storage Warehouses
- Commercial Feed General Information
- DSM Nutritional Products
- Warehouse layout design
- Winning the Food Fight: Best Practices for Managing Grocery Retail Supply Chains
- How Stored Product Pests Affect Warehouses
Commercial Feed General Information
In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by optimizing warehouse management systems, taking into account the estimated remaining shelf life of the product, and matching it to the requirements of the subsequent part of the handling chain.
This contribution focuses on how model approaches estimating quality changes and remaining shelf life can be combined in optimizing first-expired-first-out cold chain management strategies for perishable products.
To this end, shelf-life-related performance indicators are used to introduce remaining shelf life and product quality in the cost function when optimizing the supply chain. A combinatorial exhaustive-search algorithm is shown to be feasible as the complexity of the optimization problem is sufficiently low for the size and properties of a typical commercial cold chain.
The estimated shelf life distances for a particular batch can thus be taken as a guide to optimize logistics. The globalization of supply networks makes the task of supply chain management more and more challenging and often requires strategic shifts to continue to meet market demands.
In the supply chains for perishable products, such as processed and fresh food products, the partners have a shared responsibility of minimizing quality losses to deliver high-quality products to the end users. In spite of their efforts, a large portion of what is produced is never consumed. Food loss refers to the decrease in edible food mass at the production, post-harvest and processing stages of the food chain owing to processes such as weight loss, microbial rots, diseases and insect damage.
Food waste, a symptom merely characteristic of developed countries' consumerist lifestyles, refers to the discard of products not meeting set quality standards, waste generated during processing, surpluses during catering and consumption, and unsold volumes running out of shelf life owing to a mismatch between supply and demand.
Some of these factors are inherent to the perishable character of the food products while others are clearly economically and socially determined. To be able to sustain a growing world population with enough food within the restriction of limited land resources, the global supply chains for perishable products, such as processed and fresh food products, should above all focus on reducing existing food loss and waste by intelligent food logistics [ 2 ].
By understanding the behaviour of our food products in response to the handling conditions of the supply chain, logistics can be further improved. To reach a successful integrated chain management approach, several international efforts have been developed focusing on the various relevant aspects, such as sensor technology to monitor the logistic conditions [ 3 ], radio frequency identification RFID and GPS technology to enable fast communication throughout the supply chain [ 4 , 5 ], improved transport modalities to guarantee better climate control [ 6 ], new warehouse management approaches dedicated to perishable products [ 7 ], shelf life models to predict the product's behaviour [ 8 ] or a combination of one or more of these aspects [ 9 ].
The ultimate path to optimizing perishable food logistics would engage all of the aspects mentioned above while taking the product's requirements as the central instruction leaflet to shape the supply chain around it. This contribution focuses on the use of prediction models describing product quality changes during handling and transport and on how this information can be incorporated into warehouse management systems, moving emphasis from the classical first-in-first-out FIFO towards a first-expired-first-out FEFO strategy.
By implementing such a model-based approach, the flow of perishable goods can be optimized by taking into account the expected shelf life of the products.
By doing so, unnecessary losses throughout the supply chain can be prevented, thus minimizing economic losses as well, while clients can be served better by providing them with product meeting their requirements and will also help match the product-holding versus demand ratios [ 10 ].
The quality of a horticultural product is largely based on the subjective consumer evaluation of a complex of quality attributes such as taste, texture, colour and appearance , which are based on specific product properties such as sugar content, volatile production and cell wall structure [ 11 , 12 ].
What constitutes quality largely depends on the social and economic background of the consumer and the intended usage of the product. Quality can be seen resulting from the concerted action of several quality attributes, each based on its own physiological or physical product property.
These product properties generally change over time, as part of the normal metabolism of the product. In general, quality decreases with time. In spite of all efforts, post-harvest handling will not improve the quality of a product; it can only delay the process of quality loss. Only in some exceptional cases, one might interpret the changes as an improvement in quality such as in the case of fruit ripening. Depending on the position of the product in the supply chain, this might be interpreted as a gain offering ready-to-eat fruit in a supermarket or a loss fruit becoming too ripe to be shipped to distant markets.
This raises the concepts of shelf life and keeping quality [ 13 ]. Keeping quality refers to the time it takes under real-life supply chain conditions before quality falls below some limit, making the product unacceptable, while shelf life is the keeping quality under well-defined storage conditions e.
Generally, the limiting factor with regard to consumer acceptance can be pinpointed to a single quality attribute. To predict keeping quality of a product, monitoring of this single attribute suffices but does not necessarily give a complete picture of the quality. For this, a more elaborate compound quality index is required. The quality of perishable products is not a static parameter but is a highly dynamic variable.
Depending on the supply chain conditions, quality will change over time at varying rates. One of the premises in the perishable food industry is that the physiological, microbial and bio chemical processes responsible for quality loss can be suppressed by manipulating the conditions under which the produce is stored, packaged and transported. Generally, most emphasis is placed on the control of temperature followed by humidity, and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
To understand the mode of action of these environmental factors, a good understanding of how relevant product properties depend on storage conditions is required. Temperature is the main factor affecting all bio chemical processes through its effects on activation enthalpy and entropy of the underlying reactions [ 14 ]. This is valid for both enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions and therefore applies to a wide range of fresh and processed food products.
While low temperatures are often required to extend shelf life, some products e. In addition, mechanical cooling goes hand in hand with drying of the air, inducing saleable weight loss and often also affecting the product's appearance through wilting or shrivelling [ 16 ]. For this reason, relative humidity is considered the second most important factor affecting quality. To minimize water loss, additional humidification or proper packaging is required.
At the same time, too high humidity can induce moistening of, for instance, dried products and microbial rot of many fresh and processed food products. Hence, relative humidity plays an important role in the conservation of both dry and water-rich fresh and processed food products. Given the importance of temperature control in the supply chain of perishable food products, one often tries to maintain proper low temperatures throughout the supply chain.
Such a temperature-controlled supply chain is often referred to as a cold chain. Many food products are derived from living plant or animal parts, and in an unprocessed or minimally processed form these products continue to exhibit an active metabolism required to maintain the biological integrity of the tissue.
By proper control of the levels of oxygen O 2 and carbon dioxide CO 2 in the storage atmosphere, the product's metabolism can be controlled; by reducing the levels of O 2 and increasing the levels of CO 2 , the metabolic rate can be suppressed to the bare minimum, reducing the energy requirements and maximizing the product's shelf life [ 17 , 18 ].
In addition, high CO 2 is known to inhibit microbial growth and thus, from a microbial point of view, contributes to the extension of shelf life [ 19 ]. Temperature strongly interacts with the effects of O 2 and CO 2 on both the energy-demanding and -producing processes. Some quality-degrading processes are affected more than others owing to the way they depend on the composition of the storage atmosphere [ 17 ]. The majority of the sensor applications in the supply chain focus on measuring and logging the supply chain conditions, across time to be used for first-, second- and third-order supply chain logistics figure 1.
First-order logistics use the raw data for compliance issues, to see whether the conditions remained within their prescribed ranges throughout the supply chain. Going one step further, second-order logistics involve processing the monitored data into more useful information such as product quality and remaining shelf life.
Finally, third-order logistics use this derived product quality and remaining shelf life data for smart supply chain decisions such as FEFO strategies. First-, second- and third-order logistics in a monitored cold chain. Online version in colour. Warehouse management may be viewed as the ability to coordinate both incoming and outgoing goods to limit waste product arriving or leaving the warehouse. That is, the strategy adopted will have to consider i the product deterioration rate and ii product demand [ 20 ].
Irrespective of the strategy adopted, the primary aim is to deliver efficiencies across a number of business processes, including a reduction in product lead times and also a reduction in product quality losses. Collectively, these systems aim at reducing the cost of business operations and adding value to the supply chain. Such systems mainly function by facilitating the flow of information in parallel with the flow of product, increasing supply chain transparency.
However, these in-house systems often function in isolation and may all too often be incompatible with other systems across trading partners across a supply network. This level of incompatibility will lead to disjointed and inaccurate transfers of information across the supply network, resulting in an inability to determine the quality and integrity of many of the incoming goods at an individual DC.
The possibilities to address such issues depend on the level of ownership across the supply chain. If an organization assumes complete ownership across primary production, secondary processing and distribution to retail, this facilitates overall process control and makes the task of information sharing much easier. It allows information-sharing channels to be created across the full supply network where product flows in parallel with its quality and integrity information.
This adds an element of transparency both internally within one's own warehouse and also across trading partners, as recommended in the global reporting initiative [ 21 ]. However, in reality complete supply chain control and, more importantly, asset visibility across all stages is all too often lacking. When evaluating warehouse management strategies, it is important to consider that each warehouse is part of a wider supply chain spanning across countries, nations and often continents, and that for each warehouse it is necessary to consider the product's history providing an appreciation of the product.
FIFO is the more commonly adopted approach as it seems to be a logical choice towards asset rotation, ensuring stock is shipped out based on its arrival date at each individual DC. This approach requires each individual warehouse or DC to first ship products that have spent most time on site irrespective of their remaining shelf life and their final destination [ 22 ].
This approach makes the often-criticized assumption that all products arriving on a particular date have the same shelf life potential, which all too often is not the case. A FEFO approach makes different assumptions in terms of a product's shelf life. FEFO will only ship products depending on their shelf life potential in relation to their end destination. It will only ship goods when their expiry date is known, thus ensuring only high-quality products arrive at their destination and eliminating product loss during transport.
The transition to a strategy of FEFO requires the implementation of information-sharing highways across supply chains between trading partners. This enables a data-driven supply network that will give the DC manager more information about the integrity shelf life of all incoming goods and, as a result, the DC manager may then choose to distribute goods based on their remaining shelf life. Also, DC managers will be able to view the complete history of a particular product across primary production, secondary processing and distribution, which goes beyond a one-step-back, one-step-forward approach.
Global financial trading platforms rely on the ability to capture, interpret and transmit data across the globe in real time, without which the global financial market would not survive. Similarly, commodity supply chains, which once adopted a local approach towards trading, have expanded exponentially and nowadays operate on a global scale across time zones and national and international markets as well.
To this end, all related activities, including sourcing, logistics, processing, storage and distribution, need to be adapted to meet such a global scale. The key to success is to ensure that the physical product and its corresponding information travel in synchrony across primary production, storage and distribution [ 23 ]. It will bridge the traditional cyber—physical gap between the flow of product and the corresponding flow of information. This cyber—physical link will objectively and accurately provide the essential pre-requisites of a responsive, fully flexible global supply chain essential to address modern-day food security issues and to reduce post-harvest food losses.
Information resources come in a variety of formats from a variety of sources both internal within the organization and outside from trading partners or competitors. As a consequence, organizations need to synchronize the information traded using similar languages, formats, structuring and information and make this information available in the correct way at the correct time [ 24 ].
Only then can trading partners begin to understand their supply chain as this valuable data source rich in management information will help identify value-adding and non-value-adding processes.
From here, one can develop decision-supported algorithms to feed information into diagnostic systems, which directly improve the operational efficiency of the supply chain. When used correctly information resources can i provide full chain transparency, ii form the architecture of an early identification system and iii provide an invaluable recourse in the decision-making process at both strategic and exception management.
A wide range of mathematical models have found their application in the wider food area [ 25 ]. Within the framework of developing models for warehouse management, three approaches of increasing complexity are considered: i statistical process control SPC , where conditions are monitored and controlled to stay within limits defined by statistical concepts, ii generic shelf life models , where the shelf life of a product is modelled as a function of the conditions in the logistic chain, and iii specific quality attribute models , which describe a specific quality-related property of a specific product e.
The SPC approach forms the foundation for first-order logistics while the generic shelf life model and the specific quality attribute model focus on second-order logistics, eventually enabling the development of third-order logistics strategies. SPC is about monitoring process variables to make sure that the process stays constant within certain well-defined specifications [ 26 ].
Even though SPC has been widely applied in the area of batch processing [ 27 ], the application in food production processes has been limited [ 28 — 31 ] and the application to supply chain logistics is almost non-existent [ 32 ]. The dimensionality of the control problem is by definition limited, as the number of variables is often limited to the two main factors, temperature and humidity, only. The control limits are defined relative to the targeted climate conditions, being either optimal conditions based on the product's requirements or conditions desirable from a managerial point of view.
Animal by-product categories, site approval, hygiene and disposal
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Food Storage Warehouses
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world's population. It is challenging to find an inclusive way to cover all aspects of food production and sale. Most food produced for the food industry comes from commodity crops using conventional agricultural practices. Agriculture is the process of producing food, feeding products, fiber and other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals livestock. The practice of agriculture is also known as " farming ". Scientists, inventors, and others devoted to improving farming methods and implements are also said to be engaged in agriculture. Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fibre, and land reclamation.
Commercial Feed General Information
As many of today's food products repeatedly cross national boundaries, International Standards are needed to ensure the safety of the global food supply chain. ISO It maps out what an organization needs to do to demonstrate its ability to control food safety hazards in order to ensure that food is safe. It can be used by any organization regardless of its size or position in the food chain. Learn more on our revision page.
Animal Health. Cottage Food. Fertilizer Product Database.
DSM Nutritional Products
Animal Health. Cottage Food. Fertilizer Product Database. Food and Feed Recalls. Forms and Publications.
Warehouse layout design
Food retail is a tough and turbulent market. Grocery has never been easy, but the current business transformation is more dramatic than anything we have seen in decades. Looking at these trends and the challenges and opportunities they present, it is obvious that supply chain management will lie at the heart of the future successes and failures in grocery retail. All food retailers need to make tough choices today about where to place their business bets. However, regardless of the strategies selected by the different players, if their grocery supply chains are not developed to match the chosen strategies, chances of success are slim. In addition, many of them will need to manage the complexity of operating multiple store formats and offering several fulfillment options in parallel.
Federal government websites always use a. USDA's food distribution programs strengthen the nutrition safety net through the distribution of USDA Foods and other nutrition assistance to children, low-income families, emergency feeding programs, Indian reservations, and the elderly. The Commodity Supplemental Food Program works to improve the health of low-income pregnant women, new mothers, infants, children, and the elderly by supplementing their diets with nutritious USDA Foods. The Food Aid Program provides U. These purchases help to stabilize prices in agricultural commodity markets by balancing supply and demand.
Winning the Food Fight: Best Practices for Managing Grocery Retail Supply Chains
Examples include cereals, coffee beans, sugar, palm oil, eggs, milk, fruits, vegetables, beef, cotton and rubber. Thus, within a particular grade, and with respect to a given variety, commodities coming from different suppliers, and even different countries or continents, are ready substitutes for one another. For example whilst two varieties of coffee bean, such as robusta and arabica, do have differing characteristics but two robustas, albeit from different continents, will, within the same grade band, have identical characteristics in all important respects. Agricultural commodities are generic, undifferentiated products that, since they have no other distinguishing and marketable characteristics, compete with one another on the basis of price.
How Stored Product Pests Affect Warehouses
While stored product pests tend to be small in size, the damage they are capable of creating can be quite large! Stored product pests can quickly destroy large amounts of stored grains, and other processed dry goods. By educating your staff and being able to rely on a professional pest control company with a quality stored product pest control program you can better protect your commercial facility and give yourself the peace of mind that your facility will remain pest free. Depending on the products that are stored in your facility will determine what type of stored product pests will invade and the type of proactive pest control plan that will best suit your needs.
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