Units manufactory plant and animal fiber processing products
There are three basic steps required for fabric production. The first step in creating fabric is yarn production. Here, the raw materials that have been harvested and processed are transformed from raw fibers into yarn and threads. This is done by spinning the fibers.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Journey of Cotton from Farm to Fabric
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The textile process
Read more. All textiles are made up of fibres that are arranged in different ways to create the desired strength, durability, appearance and texture.
The fibres can be of countless origins, but can be grouped into four main categories. Natural fibres, with the exception of silk, have a relatively short fibre length, measured in centimetres. Silk and man-made fibres have on the other hand very long fibre lengths filaments ranging from hundreds of metres to kilometres long. Plant fibres consists of cellulosic material, normally derived from cotton, linen, hemp or bamboo, but more or less any plant with extractable cellulose can be used.
Cotton is by far the most commonly used plant fibre and the cultivation of cotton is enormously resource-intensive, with high inputs of water, pesticides, insecticides and fertilisers leaving a large toxic footprint where grown, if not cultivated organically or under specific sustainable conditions.
Animal fibres consist of proteins. Wool and silk are the most commonly used fibres from this group, but the wool can come from a number of different animals. In order to make animals grow faster and produce higher yields of wool, pesticides and insecticides are used to prevent disease. Dipping is a common practice to control parasites in sheep farming, making use of both organic phosphates as well as synthetic pyrethroid.
After the wool fibres have been sheared they are treated with chemicals during the scouring and washing process. Man-made fibres such as viscose rayon or lyocell are based on cellulosic raw material, normally from wood pulp.
They are heavily treated with chemicals before the new fibre is spun. The whole process of producing fibres from wood pulp is very resource-intensive, involving the use of several hazardous substances. Synthetic fibres are made from monomers sourced from fossil oil feedstocks, which are subsequently polymerised into different fibres. Given all the possible monomers that can be made from a synthetic feedstock, the possible combinations are endless.
However the most common synthetic fibre is polyester, followed by polyamide, polyacrylic and aramide. Depending on the monomer used to produce the fibre, an endless number of chemicals may be used in the process. For some of the synthetic fibres such as polyester, dyeing can be accomplished already when the fibre is manufactured.
When the fibre has been harvested or produced the next step is to spin the fibres into a yarn. It is easy to believe that this step, which is a mechanical one, uses no chemicals.
But in order to increase the strength of the fibre, increase fibre cohesion and reduce friction during the spinning process, spinning oils are added. The core of textile manufacture is fabric production. Fabrics can be created in many different ways, the most common being weaving, knitting or through production of non-woven fabrics.
To prevent the yarn from breaking during these processes, it is important to strengthen the yarn and reduce friction. Sizing chemicals and lubricants are therefore added. Pre-treatment processes can be carried out with fibres, yarns or fabrics. This is done in a multi-step process. Exactly which steps the fabric goes through depends on the type, or blend of fibre, and how it will be treated afterwards. In some cases pre-treated fabrics are manufactured for later garment dyeing.
During dyeing and printing both hazardous chemicals and dyestuffs are used. Dyes used for dyeing, can also be used for printing, but must then undergo the same fixation and washings steps as after the dyeing process. The most common way to print a fabric in full width is to use pigment prints, where the pigments stick to a surface using polymeric resin or a binder.
No washing processes are needed. For garment printing , plastisol printing is very common. The PVC-based paste often contains hazardous chemicals, such as phthalates, but there are also alternatives based on acrylate or polyurethane. Dyeing can take place in several steps when processing the textile. It can be done when spinning the synthetic or man-made fibres, as loose natural or regenerated fibers and in the form of yarns or fabrics.
Garment dyeing is also common. Full-width printing is carried out on pre-treated fabrics, but it is also possible to put a print on a garment or manufactured textile product by screen or transfer printing.
Digital printing is another method. There are other printing techniques as discharge and resist print using dyes and chemicals.
This includes washing to get rid of surplus dyes and residues. This step of the process is all about adding special technical properties or an aesthetic appeal to the finished fabric. Depending on the properties desired, such as flame retardance, enhanced water resistance, antibacterial treatment, protective coatings or specific fashion treatments, a diverse range of chemicals are used.
Some examples are given below. When the fabric has the desired colour and properties, it is made into finished products such as sweaters, jeans, shoes or other special items like carpets, furniture or car seats. This step includes processes such as cutting, sewing and the addition of buttons and zippers, for example. In some cases dyeing and printing of the finished garments, with the fabric only pre-treated, occurs at this step. In garment dyeing there are a lot of dyestuff and chemicals used showed in step 5.
Some times dyestuff with quite bad wash permanence are chosen to give the clothing in fashion a worn out look. For garment printing, Plastisol prints PVC are very common, but there are other types available for example based on acrylate or polyurethane. A range of chemicals is normally used in most steps of the production process to assist the tasks of other chemicals. Such general auxiliaries include:. In order to provide you with an even better experience, the team behind the Textile Guide would like to know a little bit more about you.
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If you wish to know even more about chemicals in textiles and chemicals management , go to the beginning of the Textile Guide. Step 1: Fibre production. Step 2: Yarn production. Step 3: Fabric production. Step 4: Pre-treatment. Step 5: Dyeing and printing. Step 6: Finishing treatments. Step 7: Manufacturing, transport, sales and retail.
Step 1. Fibre production. Back to top. Step 2. Yarn production. Step 3. Fabric production. Step 4. The most common steps involving chemicals for a fabric are: Washing, general cleaning of the fabric following previous steps and treatments. It also makes the fibres more absorbent. By doing so one can reduce the amount of dyes needed.
Step 5. Dyeing and printing. For fiber blends, two types of dyed fibres can be spunned together e. Step 6. Finishing treatments. Step 7. Manufacturing, transport, sales and retail. Transport preparation, which includes protection from mould during transportation and storage, mostly using biocides.
Dimethyl fumarate, ethylene oxide, methylbromide, 1,2 dichloroethane, phospine, dichloromethane, sulfuryl fluoride. Auxiliary chemicals. Go to the survey Kind regards, The Textile Guide team.
Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Man is a friend of fashion in nature. The desire for better garment and apparel resulted in the development of textile fiber production and textile manufacturing process.
As with many discoveries of early man, anthropologists believe the use of wool came out of the challenge to survive. In seeking means of protection and warmth, humans in the Neolithic Age wore animal pelts as clothing. Finding the pelts not only warm and comfortable but also durable, they soon began to develop the basic processes and primitive tools for making wool. By B. People soon began to develop and maintain herds of wool-bearing animals.
Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
Cotton fibre can be woven or knitted into fabrics including velvet, corduroy, chambray, velour, jersey and flannel. Cotton can be used to create dozens of different fabric types for a range of end-uses, including blends with other natural fibres like wool, and synthetic fibres like polyester. In addition to textile products like underwear, socks and t-shirts, cotton is also used in fishnets, coffee filters, tents, book binding and archival paper. Linters are the very short fibres that remain on the cottonseed after ginning, and are used to produce goods such as bandages, swabs, bank notes, cotton buds and x-rays. The cotton lint from one kg bale can produce pairs of denim jeans, single bed sheets, shirts, 1, t-shirts, 3, nappies, 4, pairs of socks, , cotton balls, or 2, pairs of boxer shorts. Cotton is a food and a fibre crop. Cottonseed, which makes up around half the weight of the picked cotton, is fed to cattle and crushed to make oil. One tonne of cotton seed yields approximately kg of oil, kg of cotton seed meal and kg of hulls. Cottonseed oil is cholesterol free, high in polyunsaturated fats and contains high levels of anti-oxidants vitamin E , which contribute to its long shelf life. This cotton seed oil is used for cooking and in products like soap, margarine, emulsifiers, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, rubber and plastics.
Types of Yarn
Read more. All textiles are made up of fibres that are arranged in different ways to create the desired strength, durability, appearance and texture. The fibres can be of countless origins, but can be grouped into four main categories. Natural fibres, with the exception of silk, have a relatively short fibre length, measured in centimetres.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn.
Natural wool is the fiber obtained from sheep and other animals. For example cashmere and the mohair of goats, Qiviut of muskoxen, angora of rabbits, and Camelid wool. Sheep wool is the most preferred because it has important physical properties distinguish it from camel hair, goat hair, and others. The wool is consists of protein with a low proportion of fat. So it is quite different from cotton which is mainly cellulose. Global raw wool production is approximately 3.
Clothing from banana fiber
ASTM's textile standards provide the specifications and test methods for the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of textiles, fabrics, and cloths, as well as the natural and artificial fibers that constitute them. The textiles covered by these standards are commonly formed by weaving, knitting, or spinning together fibers such as glass fiber strands, wool and other animal fibers, cotton and other plant-derived fibers, yarn, sewing threads, and mohair, to name a few. These textile standards help fabric and cloth designers and manufacturers in testing textiles to ensure acceptable characteristics towards proper end-use. Additive Manufacturing Standards. Cement Standards and Concrete Standards. Fire Standards and Flammability Standards. Geotechnical Engineering Standards.
Natural fibers have been used historically to produce our clothes, carpets, cordage, paper, ships sails, and insulation and building materials. The use of natural fibers, both plant, and animal, to meet our needs goes back thousands of years and plays a significant role in history. In the history of natural fibers, one of the oldest recorded uses of plant fibre for fabrics is the use of hemp which was already being cultivated in China in BC.
Natural Wool: Its Characteristics, Manufacturing Process, and Good Washing of Woolen Fabrics
Natural fibre , any hairlike raw material directly obtainable from an animal, vegetable, or mineral source and convertible into nonwoven fabrics such as felt or paper or, after spinning into yarns, into woven cloth. A natural fibre may be further defined as an agglomeration of cells in which the diameter is negligible in comparison with the length. Although nature abounds in fibrous materials, especially cellulosic types such as cotton , wood , grains, and straw , only a small number can be used for textile products or other industrial purposes. Apart from economic considerations, the usefulness of a fibre for commercial purposes is determined by such properties as length, strength, pliability, elasticity, abrasion resistance, absorbency, and various surface properties.
There are a wide variety of fibers that are used to create yarns that you can use for knitting and crocheting and they come from a variety of sources. Yarns are made from a group of fibers twisted together to form a continuous strand. The fibers used to create these yarns include animal fibers, plant fibers and synthetic fibers.
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How is fabric created?
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Наполнив тяжелый хрустальный стакан водой из фонтанчика, Беккер сделал несколько жадных глотков, потянулся и расправил плечи, стараясь сбросить алкогольное оцепенение, после чего поставил стакан на столик и направился к выходу.
Когда он проходил мимо лифта, дверцы открылись. В кабине стоял какой-то мужчина.