Product manufacture compositions and Fragrances
Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own odor by using perfume, which emulates nature's pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry, temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on any two people. Perfume comes from the Latin "per" meaning "through" and "fumum," or "smoke.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How to Make Perfume - Start to Finish
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This patent relates to Provisional U. The invention described in this application is not the result of a federally sponsored research or development agreement. The present invention relates to fragrance ingredients, fragrance concentrates and perfumes, that are created by high-energy extraction or dilution of natural or synthetic starting materials with solvents composed of nature-derived or synthetic, cosmetic-grade, medium-volatility hydrocarbons or their respective ethers MCHEs.
In particular, the present invention relates to fragrance compositions and perfumes obtained by artful blending of those ingredients without the use of alcohol or water, that can be used directly as non-alcoholic perfumes or in the scenting of skin-care and hair-care products. Oil-based perfumes and fragrances are the oldest man made scents dating back to at least the times of ancient Egypt and Babylonia.
Alcoholic fragrances, on the other hand, have been produced since the Renaissance. Relatively recent are attempts to create novel fragrance carriers other than ethanol. Thus, the creation of non-alcoholic fragrance preparations figures prominently in the current international patent literature. However, none of the recent art cited above describes the use of medium-volatility hydrocarbons or their respective ethers MCHEs as fragrance extraction solvents and as fragrance carriers, which lies at the core of the present invention.
The prior art falls into three categories: 1 high-molecular weight hydrocarbons are being used as fragrance carriers in mothballs [U. No prior art exits that describes the use of MCHE solvents in the creation of non-aqueous, non-alcoholic fragrance materials and their respective perfume blends, which can be directly used on the human skin.
An odor sensation is produced when airborne molecules bind to receptors on the olfactory cilia, which are located on the olfactory bulb inside the human nose. These molecules produce specific neuronal signals that can trigger either negative or positive psychological and behavioral responses. Aroma compounds share certain physical and chemical characteristics: a , in order to become airborne their molecular weight is normally below Daltons; b their vapor pressure must be relatively high in order to allow for volatility; c this volatility is associated with low- to intermediate polarities which minimize the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds ; d the latter property in turn influences their solubility, such that they are more soluble in less polar than in aqueous more polar solvent media.
Fragrances, being complex mixtures of aroma molecules, occur widely in nature, for example as botanical or animal scents or cooking aromas, or the scent of a sea shore, to name only a few. Since prehistoric times humans have attempted to capture these scents and use them to enhance their own personas, their food or their environment.
This is possible because the fragrant molecules which make up the scents can be extracted from their respective source materials using low-polarity solvents such as oils and fats. For millennia fragrances were thus oil- or fat based extracts of botanical or animal materials, or their artful blends, resulting in perfume oils, unguents or balsams, pomades and fragrant salves.
The Arabic culture of the Middle Ages introduced distillation as another method of isolating and at the same time concentrating fragrances from their natural source materials, resulting in what are commonly called essential oils. Those in turn were diluted with oils or fats or added to other extracts to produce ever more sophisticated fragrance blends or perfumes. Ethanol as a fragrance carrier has been in use since the 14th century and has become the solvent of choice in fragrance composition and manufacturing.
Advances of synthetic organic chemistry in the 19th century allowed yet for another addition to the palette of fragrance ingredients, namely synthetic aroma molecules, either as the synthetic versions of their natural counterparts, or as completely novel entities with hitherto unknown olfactory characteristics. Today synthetic aroma molecules are the bulk ingredients in most fragrance compositions. Similar to fragrance molecules of natural origin, these synthetics are characterized by relatively low molecular weights, high volatility and low polarity.
Consequently, oils and ethanol are still the most widely used carrier solvents in perfumery. However, consumer preferences in some segments of the fragrance and cosmetics markets are trending away from alcohol as a fragrance carrier solvent. The demand for non-alcoholic fragrance is based on perceived drying or irritating effects of alcohol on the skin, on the fact that the alcohol is mostly of synthetic origin see the demand for natural ingredients below , and—especially in the growing Middle-Eastern market—for cultural reasons.
One alternative to alcohol is the use of natural oils. However, oils have certain disadvantages as fragrance carriers, most notably their limited chemical stability and oily skin-feel. An additional disadvantage of carrier oils is that they will stay on the skin for considerable time and thus influence the evaporation behavior of the fragrance components.
The result is a weaker scent sensation compared to alcoholic perfumes, a fact that limits universal consumer appeal. Finally, the same lack of volatility can lead to staining of fabrics and clothing. International consumer preferences are also trending towards all-natural and sustainably-produced ingredients, in food as well as in cosmetic or fragrance applications.
Also, natural materials, especially when sustainably produced, are perceived to leave a lesser carbon footprint than synthetics, which are mostly derived from petrochemicals.
Products which conform to one of those standards gain an instant and significant market advantage. In contrast to the manufacturing of synthetic aroma chemicals with its predictable and defined process costs, the cost-effective production of natural fragrance materials poses unique challenges: 1 due to their mostly botanical origin, these materials may be produced in remote geographic areas, can be highly seasonal, and their quality often varies under climatic influences.
This has first and foremost to do with the fact that natural raw materials and ingredients are usually complex mixtures containing hundreds of different compounds of which only a certain percentage contribute to the fragrance. When compared to synthetic fragrance materials, nature-derived ingredients are more expensive to procure, and may require elaborate refining processes with profound consequences on production costs and odor profiles. The current industry conundrum is that synthetic materials, while more cost effective, are being increasingly rejected by the consumer, and yet the corresponding refined natural alternatives are driving prices up and thus again limiting customer appeal.
The present invention introduces new fragrance carrier solvents which are comprised of medium-chain C8-C14 straight or branched hydrocarbons, or their respective ethers, MCHEs or blends thereof, which are able to selectively dissolve aroma molecules from natural matrices or pre-extracted raw materials, leaving non-fragrant compounds behind. The resulting solutions are selectively enriched for aroma molecules, have high olfactory impact, and offer production economy, compared to current art.
In the following text these solvents will be abbreviated as MCHE. Considering the limitations of alcohol and oils in the current art of perfume and fragrance production, the more ideal MCHE fragrance carriers, presented here as the essential part of the invention, have the following attributes: selective solubilization of fragrant components, allowing for their selective extraction and concentration from raw natural materials or synthetic reaction mixtures, while leaving non-scented, strongly colored, and otherwise undesirable compounds behind to be easily separated.
In a preferred embodiment, these ingredients are blended into all-natural, non-alcoholic and non-aqueous fragrance concentrates that have stability and esthetic qualities similar to classical alcohol-based perfumes, but improved skin feel.
In another embodiment, conventional fragrance concentrates are treated with aforementioned MCHEs or their blends by means of a high-energy extraction process to produce fragrance concentrates or perfumes with novel and original olfactory characteristics, compared to the starting materials, and yet with the same favorable qualities as described above.
A natural fragrance material as defined hereinafter is an essential component of the invention. Natural fragrance materials according to the invention are extracts or dilutions of natural source materials, such as flowers or flower petals e.
Traditionally, the solvents used for the production of these materials are low-boiling, and highly flammable petrol fractions such as n-Hexane or petrol ether, alcohol, or liquified carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction, SFE. In contrast, the natural fragrance materials comprising this invention, are based on MCHEs as extractants and carrier solvents, with higher flash-points and hence safer processing qualities, and with esthetic and biological-safety characteristics that allow their direct incorporation in cosmetic skin- and hair-care formulas.
As already mentioned, the intended uses for these materials are in the cosmetic and skin care areas, and many have been ECOCERT-certified, since their production processes conform with the certification standards for natural cosmetics.
The preferred MCHE products for this invention, are being marketed either as pure compounds e. According to the invention, these MCHE liquids are especially useful as fragrance extractants or fragrance carriers, because of their low polarity and concomitant solubilizing selectivity for low-molecular weight fragrance molecules, their volatility at skin temperature, and their superior skin-feel and non-irritant property.
Additionally, fragrance ingredients or their respective blends, which are based on these solvents, have a viscosity similar to ethanol and substantially lower than vegetable oils, making them suitable for use in sprays and atomizers. The invention employs these MCHEs as solvents for the processing of conventional natural or synthetic fragrant materials—either raw or pre-extracted see above —or their mixtures, by means of dilution, extraction or maceration that is a form of static or dynamic extraction at a given temperature over an extended period of time.
Unlike conventional aroma extracts with short-chain hydrocarbons of petrochemical origin, such as n-hexane or petrol ether, which have to be removed by evaporation before further use among other reasons because of their flammability , the claimed non-alcoholic, MCHE-based fragrance concentrates, being of considerably lower flammability, non-irritant and only slightly colored and with fewer non-fragrant contaminants, can be employed directly in fragrance or cosmetic formulations without further dilution or adjustments.
In contrast, the present invention allows direct composing and blending of highly fragrant MCHE concentrates into finished perfumes without the necessity for further dilution or time-consuming clarification. In other words, the present invention allows for a new and efficient way to create fragrance blends and perfumes, that can be either employed directly on the human skin or become the fragrant part of a personal care or household formula.
As described above, raw starting materials employed by the invention can be fresh or dried plant or animal parts, or pre-extracted botanical or animal materials, or solvent extracts of those raw materials.
Moreover, only a certain fraction of the mass of these extraction products comprises the actual fragrant molecules and often large batch-to-batch variability can occur. The latter problem stems from factors such as lack of standardization protocols in the countries of origin, or climatic variability during growing and harvest seasons, or variable quality of extraction solvents.
Thus, for industrial producers of fragrance materials the creation of products of consistent quality over long sales periods is a major challenge. In this embodiment of the invention, raw materials are treated with MCHE solvents at a pre-determined ratio.
Because of their low polarities, which closely match those of most fragrance molecules, the solvents introduced by the invention selectively extract and concentrate aroma compounds into lightly colored, highly-fragrant, low-viscosity concentrates of consistent and reproducible quality, leaving most non-fragrant ballast behind. As it is common in food and beverage production, artful blending of different batches of these concentrates, or batches of different provenances or vintages, allows for an easy and cost-effective way to maintain consistent product quality over extended periods of time.
Similarly, production processes for synthetic fragrance materials go through stages of purification of the raw reaction mixtures.
In a related embodiment of the invention, aforementioned MCHE solvents can be used to selectively extract fragrant species from pre-purified reaction mixtures from which potentially interfering reagents and solvents have been removed to give highly fragrant concentrates.
In the latter, the individual fragrant molecules e. The following are non-limiting examples of suitable processes for the manufacture of fragrance ingredients according to the present invention. The bottles are sealed and placed onto a laboratory bottle roller Thermo Scientific and rotated for 6 hours at low speed. Afterwards the bottles are placed into a suitable centrifuge Fisher Thermo and spun at rpm for 10 minutes.
The supernatants are decanted, combined and brought to the desired weight by addition of fresh solvent. This extract is again used for the next batch of 1 kg fresh flowers.
This extract is placed in a suitable container over 50 g of drying agent e. LTD , kept in a refrigerator for 12 hours, filtered, and stored in closed containers in a cool and dark place, preferably under a blanket of inert gas. This liquid can be used directly in further blending, the scenting of cosmetic preparations, or as a spray mist. After processing 2 kg of raw material, the filtrates are combined and placed in a refrigerator for 24 hours, at which time additional non-fragrant ballast materials precipitate out.
After subsequent filtration 3. Unlike traditionally produced frankincense resinoids, this liquid does not leave any sticky residue on the skin and can be used directly in further blending and scenting applications. A non-alcoholic non-aqueous fragrance composition or perfume as detailed hereinafter is a further embodiment of the invention.
The perfume composition according to the invention comprises either blends of the aforementioned fragrance ingredients with MCHEs as carrier solvents, either as such or as a starting point for further addition of fragrance materials other than those described above for example essential oils or synthetic aroma materials. In this embodiment of the invention, the aforementioned medium-chain hydrocarbons or ethers MCHEs are used as replacement of ethanol in the final step.
However, due to their entirely different chemical nature, these solvents are not merely diluents, but, in contrast to ethanol, selectively dissolve the low-polarity fragrant materials from the initial blend and at different ratios compared to the original concentrate. The MCHE solvents at the core of this invention are non-polar in nature.
This means that they have a natural affinity to fragrance molecules of low polarity, easily dissolving and thereby separating them from more polar components in the starting mixtures. The upper layer contains most of the fragrant components but little color, while the lower layer contains mainly more polar and highly colored side products but also more polar and desirable fragrant molecules. According to the present invention, the partition of those more-polar fragrant molecules of the original blend into the upper hydrocarbon layer can be maximized by treating the two-phase system with ultrasound or a high-speed homogenizer for several minutes, followed by storage at near-freezing temperature to allow for a clear separation of the mixture into two layers.
The resulting upper less polar layer is highly fragrant yet clear and, in contrast to the original blend, almost colorless, which provides an important esthetic advantage when aiming at the scenting of cosmetic formulations.
Under these circumstances, the dissolved low-polarity compounds themselves can act as co-solvents for other fragrant components in the original blend. This complex interaction between solvent and solute MCHEs and low-polarity aroma compounds results in fragrance blends where the individual fragrant components are present at different concentrations and proportions than in the original blend.
The novelty of this approach lies in the fact that the carrier solvent not only acts as a diluent but actively participates in the selective extraction of fragrance molecules resulting in an entirely novel composition and scent profile.
The inventor also observed that these novel perfume compositions can be easily atomized using common pump-sprays, and upon contact with the human skin produce a pleasant, velvety feel; they evaporate in relatively short time due to elevated skin temperature, leaving behind the pure scent on the skin for well over twelve hours. The following is a non-limiting example of a novel all-natural and non-alcoholic perfume composition according to the present invention.
A blend of natural ingredients liquids is created with the aim at an all-natural jasmine-chocolate accord starting blend in grams :. Two batches of 5. Sprayed onto skin with an atomizer the blend spread easily and with a comfortable warming sensation. After less than a minute there was no residue left, save for the strong yet very elegant fragrance. After 5 minutes on the skin a citrusy amber note developed, which evolved into a very feminine muskiness after an additional 30 minutes.
After 3, 12 and 24 hours, the jasmine-musk theme was still clearly dominant with the chocolate notes becoming increasingly noticeable. Most interestingly, a panel of 6 volunteers rated the non-alcoholic perfume version of the invention unanimously as much too strong compared to the alcoholic version.
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We develop innovative and creative fragrances with high quality raw materials. Our perfumes are designed for each application and aimed at satisfying the needs of an increasingly demanding market. We create innovative and successful fragrances for all types of applications, from fine perfumery and niche fragrances to detergents, air fresheners, personal care and home products, in this last sector where we have a wide range. We develop captives that give exclusivity to the perfume and we have created the Encaplus technology of micro-encapsulation of perfumes to be used in products for clothes, home care and cosmetics. Aromatic compositions which are applied directly on the basis of the products and are used in fine perfumery, home, clothing and body care.
As fragrance creators, Alpha Aromatics has been making the world smell better, one customized scent at a time, for more than seven decades. Every day, Alpha Aromatics touches the lives of people around the world. We understand and respect the power of scent as one might revere the eternal supremacy of the ocean. Let us do what we do best and revolutionize your product line with our own special melange of ambient branding. Learn more about our company history, affiliations and management team. Alpha Aromatics specializes in synthetic, natural and organic fragrance sectors to accommodate the needs of all industries concerned with utilizing ambient branding to improve their bottom line. The aroma artists at Alpha Aromatics are never satisfied until their customers are. Always striving to do better than the competition, our mission is to be the best we can be and our expertise is constantly evolving to meet the complex and sophisticated demands of our valued customers. Submit an inquiry or call to speak with our team
Suppliers for perfumes vary in size, capabilities and business policies. Certainly not all companies individually solve all the problems you encounter with scenting. The best results are surely achieved with a supplier who is qualified to prepare perfume for your purposes. Many scenting problems can be solved with the participation of specialists. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the customer ownership of products that are intended for fragrance.
Он целый год хвастался, что разрабатывает алгоритм, непробиваемый для грубой силы. - Н-но… - Сьюзан запнулась, но тут же продолжила: - Я была уверена, что он блефует. Он действительно это сделал.
С ужасом девушка увидела, что сумка застряла в двери. Она наклонилась и что было сил потянула ее, стараясь высвободить застрявшую часть. Затуманенные глаза Беккера не отрываясь смотрели на торчащий из двери кусок ткани.
Он рванулся, вытянув вперед руки, к этой заветной щели, из которой торчал красный хвост сумки, и упал вперед, но его вытянутая рука не достала до .
Сьюзан смотрела на него в растерянности. Стратмор продолжал: - Внезапно я увидел в Цифровой крепости шанс, который выпадает раз в жизни. Ведь если внести в код ряд изменений, Цифровая крепость будет работать на нас, а не против. Ничего более абсурдного Сьюзан слышать еще не доводилось.
Цифровая крепость - не поддающийся взлому код, он погубит агентство.
Джабба решил не обращать на него внимания. - Мидж, - беззвучно выдавил он, - черт тебя дери. В шифровалке все в порядке! - Телефон не унимался. Джабба принялся устанавливать на место новый чип. Через минуту его усилия увенчались успехом, а телефон все звонил и звонил. Христа ради, Мидж.
Его визуальный монитор - дисплей на жидких кристаллах - был вмонтирован в левую линзу очков. Монокль явился провозвестником новой эры персональных компьютеров: благодаря ему пользователь имел возможность просматривать поступающую информацию и одновременно контактировать с окружающим миром. Кардинальное отличие Монокля заключалось не в его миниатюрном дисплее, а в системе ввода информации. Пользователь вводил информацию с помощью крошечных контактов, закрепленных на пальцах.
От него зависела жизнь Сьюзан, а также будущее Цифровой крепости. Стратмор также понимал, что первым делом нужно разрядить ситуацию. Выдержав паузу, он как бы нехотя вздохнул: - Хорошо, Грег.
Сьюзан потеряла дар речи. Он пристально посмотрел на нее и постучал ладонью по сиденью соседнего стула. - Садись, Сьюзан.
Ради всего святого, зачем вы это сделали. Чтобы скрыть свою маленькую тайну.
Ответ, уже из могилы, дал Чатрукьян. Стратмор отключил программу Сквозь строй. Это открытие было болезненным, однако правда есть правда. Стратмор скачал файл с Цифровой крепостью и запустил его в ТРАНСТЕКСТ, но программа Сквозь строй отказалась его допустить, потому что файл содержал опасную линейную мутацию.
Лестница, ведущая наверх, была пуста. Его жертва не приготовилась к отпору. Хотя, быть может, подумал Халохот, Беккер не видел, как он вошел в башню. Это означало, что на его, Халохота, стороне фактор внезапности, хотя вряд ли он в этом так уж нуждается, у него и так все козыри на руках.
Ему на руку была даже конструкция башни: лестница выходила на видовую площадку с юго-западной стороны, и Халохот мог стрелять напрямую с любой точки, не оставляя Беккеру возможности оказаться у него за спиной, В довершение всего Халохот двигался от темноты к свету. Расстрельная камера, мысленно усмехнулся .
Беккер молил Бога, чтобы это оказалось неправдой. - Рего… Но… Она пожала плечами и произнесла по-испански: - Девушке возле парка. Беккер почувствовал, что у него подкашиваются ноги. Этого не может .