Produce manufacturing colognes and scented and toilet waters
This section includes products such as perfumes, aftershaves, and powders. The text below provides some historical context and shows how we can use these products to explore aspects of American history. Perfumes were one of the first cosmetic products to be carried by American pharmacies. Oils such as lavender, rose, sandalwood, and musk were used in toilet waters, as well as to camouflage the less-agreeable scents of various salves and ointments.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: My Fragrance WISHLIST 2020
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Eau de Cologne
Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin , which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone. The word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare , meaning "to smoke through".
Perfumery, as the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia , Egypt , the Indus Valley Civilization and maybe Ancient China. It was further refined by the Romans and the Arabs. The world's first-recorded chemist is considered a woman named Tapputi , a perfume maker mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. In ,  archaeologists uncovered what are believed [ by whom? The perfumes date back more than 4, years. In ancient times people used herbs and spices , such as almond , coriander , myrtle , conifer resin , and bergamot , as well as flowers.
In the 9th century the Arab chemist Al-Kindi Alkindus wrote the Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations , which contained more than a hundred recipes for fragrant oils , salves, aromatic waters, and substitutes or imitations of costly drugs. The book also described methods and recipes for perfume-making and perfume-making equipment, such as the alembic which still bears its Arabic name.
The Persian chemist Ibn Sina also known as Avicenna introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation , the procedure most commonly used today. He first experimented with the rose. Until his discovery, liquid perfumes consisted of mixtures of oil and crushed herbs or petals, which made a strong blend. Rose water was more delicate, and immediately became popular.
Both the raw ingredients and the distillation technology significantly influenced western perfumery and scientific developments, particularly chemistry. The art of perfumery was known in western Europe from , taking into account the monks ' recipes of Santa Maria delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella of Florence , Italy.
The art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, and in the 16th century the personal perfumer to Catherine de' Medici — , Rene the Florentine Renato il fiorentino , took Italian refinements to France.
His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulae could be stolen en route. Thanks to Rene, France quickly became one of the European centers of perfume and cosmetics manufacture. Cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence, which had begun in the 14th century, grew into a major industry in the south of France. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, perfumes were used primarily by the wealthy to mask body odors resulting from infrequent bathing.
In , Italian barber Giovanni Paolo Feminis created a perfume water called Aqua Admirabilis,  today best known as eau de cologne ; his nephew Johann Maria Farina Giovanni Maria Farina took over the business in By the 18th century the Grasse region of France, Sicily , and Calabria in Italy were growing aromatic plants to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials.
Even today, Italy and France remain the center of European perfume design and trade. Ancient Greek perfume bootle in shape of an athlete binding a victory ribbon around his head; circa s BC; Ancient Agora Museum Athens.
Etruscan perfume vase, which is inscripted the word "suthina" "for the tomb" ; early 2nd century BC; bronze; height: 16 cm; Louvre. Roman perfume bottle; 1st century AD; glass; 5. British Rococo perfume vase; circa ; soft-paste porcelain; overall: Art Nouveau perfume bottle; circa ; glass with gilt metal cover; overall: Perfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent, which in fine fragrance is typically ethanol or a mix of water and ethanol.
Various sources differ considerably in the definitions of perfume types. The intensity and longevity of a perfume is based on the concentration, intensity, and longevity of the aromatic compounds, or perfume oils, used.
As the percentage of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the scent. Specific terms are used to describe a fragrance's approximate concentration by the percent of perfume oil in the volume of the final product. The most widespread terms  are:. There is much confusion over the term "cologne", which has three meanings. The first and oldest definition refers to a family of fresh, citrus-based fragrances distilled using extracts from citrus, floral, and woody ingredients.
Supposedly these were first developed in the early 18th century in Cologne, Germany , hence the name. This type of "classical cologne" describes unisex compositions "which are basically citrus blends and do not have a perfume parent. In the 20th century, the term took on a second meaning. Fragrance companies began to offer lighter, less concentrated interpretations of their existing perfumes, making their products available to a wider range of customers.
Guerlain, for example, offered an Eau de Cologne version of its flagship perfume Shalimar. In contrast to classical colognes, this type of modern cologne is a lighter, diluted, less concentrated interpretation of a more concentrated product, typically a pure parfum.
The cologne version is often the lightest concentration from a line of fragrance products. Finally, the term "cologne" has entered the English language as a generic, overarching term to denote a fragrance worn by a man, regardless of its concentration. The actual product worn by a man may technically be an eau de toilette, but he may still say that he "wears cologne". A similar problem surrounds the term "perfume", which can be used in a generic sense to refer to fragrances marketed to women, whether or not the fragrance is actually an extrait.
Classical colognes first appeared in Europe in the 17th century. The first fragrance labeled a "parfum" extract with a high concentration of aromatic compounds was Guerlain's Jicky in Eau de Toilette appeared alongside parfum around the turn of the century. The EdP concentration and terminology is the most recent. Parfum de toilette and EdP began to appear in the s and gained popularity in the s.
The wide range in the percentages of aromatic compounds that may be present in each concentration means that the terminology of extrait, EdP, EdT, and EdC is quite imprecise. Different perfumeries or perfume houses assign different amounts of oils to each of their perfumes. Therefore, although the oil concentration of a perfume in EdP dilution will necessarily be higher than the same perfume in EdT from within a company's same range, the actual amounts vary among perfume houses.
An EdT from one house may have a higher concentration of aromatic compounds than an EdP from another. Furthermore, some fragrances with the same product name but having a different concentration may not only differ in their dilutions, but actually use different perfume oil mixtures altogether.
For instance, in order to make the EdT version of a fragrance brighter and fresher than its EdP, the EdT oil may be "tweaked" to contain slightly more top notes or fewer base notes. Chanel No. Historically, women's fragrances tended to have higher levels of aromatic compounds than men's fragrances. This is changing in the modern fragrance world, especially as fragrances are becoming more unisex.
Women's fragrances used to be common in all levels of concentration, but today are mainly seen in parfum, EdP and EdT concentrations. Perfume oils are often diluted with a solvent, though this is not always the case, and its necessity is disputed. By far the most common solvent for perfume-oil dilution is alcohol, typically a mixture of ethanol and water or a rectified spirit. Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutral-smelling oils such as fractionated coconut oil , or liquid waxes such as jojoba oil.
The conventional application of pure perfume parfum extrait in Western cultures is at pulse points, such as behind the ears, the nape of the neck, and the insides of wrists, elbows and knees, so that the pulse point will warm the perfume and release fragrance continuously. According to perfumer Sophia Grojsman behind the knees is the ideal point to apply perfume in order that the scent may rise.
Lightly scented products such as bath oil, shower gel, and body lotion are recommended for the morning; eau de toilette is suggested for the afternoon; and perfume applied to the pulse points for evening. Eau de toilette lasts from 2 to 4 hours, while perfume may last up to six hours.
A variety of factors can influence how fragrance interacts with the wearer's own physiology and affect the perception of the fragrance. Diet is one factor, as eating spicy and fatty foods can increase the intensity of a fragrance.
The precise formulae of commercial perfumes are kept secret. Even if they were widely published, they would be dominated by such complex ingredients and odorants that they would be of little use in providing a guide to the general consumer in description of the experience of a scent. Nonetheless, connoisseurs of perfume can become extremely skillful at identifying components and origins of scents in the same manner as wine experts.
The most practical way to start describing a perfume is according to the elements of the fragrance notes of the scent or the "family" it belongs to, all of which affect the overall impression of a perfume from first application to the last lingering hint of scent. The trail of scent left behind by a person wearing perfume is called its sillage , after the French word for " wake ", as in the trail left by a boat in water. Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets of notes , making the harmonious scent accord.
The notes unfold over time, with the immediate impression of the top note leading to the deeper middle notes, and the base notes gradually appearing as the final stage. These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the evaporation process of the perfume. The scents in the top and middle notes are influenced by the base notes; conversely, the scents of the base notes will be altered by the types of fragrance materials used as middle notes.
Manufacturers who publish perfume notes typically do so with the fragrance components presented as a fragrance pyramid ,  using imaginative and abstract terms for the components listed. The grouping perfumes can never be completely objective or definitive. Many fragrances contain aspects of different families.
Even a perfume designated as "single flower" will have subtle undertones of other aromatics. There are hardly any true unitary-scent perfumes consisting of a single aromatic material. The family classification is a starting point to describe a perfume, but does not fully characterize it.
Since , new categories have emerged to describe modern scents, due to great advances in the technology of compound design and synthesis, as well as the natural development of styles and tastes:. This newer classification method is widely used in retail and the fragrance industry, created in by the perfume consultant Michael Edwards.
The new scheme simplifies classification and naming, as well as showing the relationships among the classes. Each of these are divided into subgroups and arranged around a wheel. In this scheme, Chanel No. C hypre perfumes are more ambiguous, having affinities with both the Oriental and Woody families. Plants have long been used in perfumery as a source of essential oils and aroma compounds.
These aromatics are usually secondary metabolites produced by plants as protection against herbivores , infections, as well as to attract pollinators. Plants are by far the largest source of fragrant compounds used in perfumery.
The sources of these compounds may be derived from various parts of a plant. A plant can offer more than one source of aromatics, for instance the aerial portions and seeds of coriander have remarkably different odors from each other. Orange leaves, blossoms, and fruit zest are the respective sources of petitgrain , neroli , and orange oils.
Cosmetics and Personal Care Products in the Medicine and Science Collections -- Fragrance
Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own odor by using perfume, which emulates nature's pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry, temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on any two people.
Account Options Anmelden. E-Book — kostenlos. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents. United States. Patent Office.
It can also contain oils of neroli , lavender , rosemary , thyme , oregano , petitgrain orange leaf , jasmine , olive , oleaster , and tobacco. In contemporary American English usage, the term "cologne" has become a generic term for perfumes usually marketed towards men. It also may signify a less concentrated but more affordable version of a popular perfume. In , Farina wrote to his brother Jean Baptiste: "I have found a fragrance that reminds me of an Italian spring morning, of mountain daffodils and orange blossoms after the rain". The Eau de Cologne composed by Farina was used only as a perfume and delivered to "nearly all royal houses in Europe". A single vial of this aqua mirabilis Latin for miracle water cost half the annual salary of a civil servant. His shop at Obenmarspforten opened in and is today the world's oldest fragrance factory.
Дэвид, задержавшись в будке, тяжко вздохнул. Взял потрепанный справочник Guia Telefonica и начал листать желтые страницы. - Ничего не выйдет, - пробормотал. В разделе Служба сопровождения в справочнике было только три строчки; впрочем, ничего иного все равно не оставалось.
Такая прическа была у Табу в день гибели.
- Эксклюзивные права у вас. Это я гарантирую. Как только найдется недостающая копия ключа, Цифровая крепость - ваша. - Но с ключа могут снять копию.
Вряд ли он позволил бы ТРАНСТЕКСТУ простаивать целый уик-энд. - Хорошо, хорошо. - Мидж вздохнула. - Я ошиблась.
Беккер встал и потянулся. Открыв полку над головой, он вспомнил, что багажа у него. Времени на сборы ему не дали, да какая разница: ему же обещали, что путешествие будет недолгим - туда и обратно. Двигатели снизили обороты, и самолет с залитого солнцем летного поля въехал в пустой ангар напротив главного терминала.
Вскоре появился пилот и открыл люк.
Нельзя дотянуться до звезд, если чувствуешь себя ущемленной, - сказала как-то ее тетушка. - И если уж попала туда, куда стремилась, постарайся выглядеть на все сто. Сьюзан сладко потянулась и взялась за. Она загрузила программу Следопыт и, приготовившись отправиться на охоту, взглянула на адрес электронной почты, который вручил ей Стратмор.
Юлий Цезарь всегда с нами. Мидж развела руками. - О чем. - Квадрат Цезаря, - просияла Сьюзан.
Стратмор кивнул: - Совершенно. - Повисла продолжительная пауза. - Прости, что я тебе лгал.
- Он потянулся к клавиатуре. - Мистер Беккер, пожалуйста, продиктуйте надпись. Медленно и отчетливо. Дэвид Беккер начал читать, Джабба печатал следом за .
Беккер знал лишь, что немец был с рыжеволосой спутницей, а в Испании это само по себе большая редкость. Клушар вспомнил, что ее звали Капля Росы.
Иногда кому-то из стариков, которых посетил Святой Дух, становилось плохо. Только и делов - вывести человека на свежий воздух. Халохот отчаянно озирался, но Беккера нигде не было. Сотни людей стояли на коленях перед алтарем, принимая причастие. Может быть, Беккер был среди .
Никогда не слышал об. - Никто не слышал. Это было сделано тайно. - Мидж, - сказал Бринкерхофф, - Джабба просто помешан на безопасности ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Он ни за что не установил бы переключатель, позволяющий действовать в обход… - Стратмор заставил .
Кольцо. Беккер смотрел на него в полном недоумении. Человек сунул руку в карман и, вытащив пистолет, нацелил его Беккеру в голову. - El anillo.