Manufacturing building compositions and Fragrances
Skilled perfumers bring art and science together to design new fragrances, a talent that takes ten or more years to develop. Crafting a fragrance that leaves an impression is one of the most important components a consumer considers when forming a positive or negative opinion about everyday products like laundry detergent, deodorant, air freshener and, of course, cologne and perfume. What if artificial intelligence AI could learn from these professionals to augment the process of developing new fragrances or identify completely novel creative pathways? With this in mind, my team at IBM Research , together with Symrise , one of the top global producers of flavors and fragrances, created an AI system that can learn about formulas, raw materials, historical success data and industry trends. It is a system that uses new and advanced machine learning algorithms to sift through hundreds of thousands of formulas and thousands of raw materials, helping identify patterns and novel combinations.
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Using AI to Create New Fragrances
Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own odor by using perfume, which emulates nature's pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry, temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on any two people.
Perfume comes from the Latin "per" meaning "through" and "fumum," or "smoke. The oil was then burned to scent the air.
Today, most perfume is used to scent bar soaps. Some products are even perfumed with industrial odorants to mask unpleasant smells or to appear "unscented.
While fragrant liquids used for the body are often considered perfume, true perfumes are defined as extracts or essences and contain a percentage of oil distilled in alcohol. Water is also used. The United States is the world's largest perfume market with annual sales totalling several billions of dollars. Ancient Egyptians burned incense called kyphi —made of henna, myrrh, cinnamon, and juniper—as religious offerings.
They soaked aromatic wood, gum, and resins in water and oil and used the liquid as a fragrant body lotion. The early Egyptians also perfumed their dead and often assigned specific fragrances to deities. Their word for perfume has been translated as "fragrance of the gods.
Eventually Egyptian perfumery influenced the Greeks and the Romans. For hundreds of years after the fall of Rome, perfume was primarily an Oriental art. Europeans discovered the healing properties of fragrance during the 17th century.
Doctors treating plague victims covered their mouths and noses with leather pouches holding pungent cloves, cinnamon, and spices which they thought would protect them from disease. Perfume then came into widespread use among the monarchy. Royal guests bathed in goat's milk and rose petals. Visitors were often doused with perfume, which also was sprayed on clothing, furniture, walls, and tableware. It was at this time that Grasse, a region of southern France where many flowering plant varieties grow, became a leading producer of perfumes.
Meanwhile, in England, aromatics were contained in lockets and the hollow heads of canes to be sniffed by the owner. It was not until the late s, when synthetic chemicals were used, that perfumes could be mass marketed.
The first synthetic perfume was nitrobenzene, made from nitric acid and benzene. This synthetic mixture gave off an almond smell and was often used to scent soaps. In , Englishman William Perkin synthesized coumarin from the South American tonka bean to create a fragrance that smelled like freshly sown hay. Ferdinand Tiemann of the University of Berlin created synthetic violet and vanilla.
In the United States, Francis Despard Dodge created citronellol—an alcohol with rose-like odor—by experimenting with citronella, which is derived from citronella oil and has a lemon-like odor. In different variations, this synthetic compound gives off the scents of sweet pea, lily of the valley, narcissus, and hyacinth. Just as the art of perfumery progressed through the centuries, so did the art of the perfume bottle.
Perfume bottles were often as elaborate and exotic as the oils they contained. The earliest specimens date back to about B. In ancient Egypt, newly invented glass bottles were made largely to hold perfumes. The crafting of perfume bottles spread into Europe and reached its peak in Venice in the 18th century, when glass containers assumed the shape of small animals or had pastoral scenes painted on them.
Today perfume bottles are designed by the manufacturer to reflect the character of the fragrance inside, whether light and flowery or dark and musky. Natural ingredients—flowers, grasses, spices, fruit, wood, roots, resins, balsams, leaves, gums, and animal secretions—as well as resources like alcohol, petrochemicals, coal, and coal tars are used in the manufacture of perfumes.
Some plants, such as lily of the valley, do not produce oils naturally. In fact, only about 2, of the , known flowering plant species contain these essential oils. Therefore, synthetic chemicals must be used to re-create the smells of non-oily substances. Synthetics also create original scents not found in nature.
Some perfume ingredients are animal products. For example, castor comes from beavers, musk from male deer, and ambergris from the sperm whale. Animal substances are often used as fixatives that enable perfume to evaporate slowly and emit odors longer.
Other fixatives include coal tar, mosses, resins, or synthetic chemicals. Alcohol and sometimes water are used to dilute ingredients in perfumes. It is the ratio of alcohol to scent that determines whether the perfume is "eau de toilette" toilet water or cologne.
Oils are extracted from plant substances by several methods: steam distillation, solvent extraction, enfleurage, maceration, and expression. Oils are extracted from plant substances by steam disfillation, solvent extraction, enfleurage, maceration, or expression.
It is the ratio of alcohol to scent that determines perfume, eau de toilette, and cologne. After the scent has been created, it is mixed with alcohol. The amount of alcohol in a scent can vary greatly. Because perfumes depend heavily on harvests of plant substances and the availability of animal products, perfumery can often turn risky. Thousands of flowers are needed to obtain just one pound of essential oils, and if the season's crop is destroyed by disease or adverse weather, perfumeries could be in jeopardy.
In addition, consistency is hard to maintain in natural oils. The same species of plant raised in several different areas with slightly different growing conditions may not yield oils with exactly the same scent. Problems are also encountered in collecting natural animal oils. Many animals once killed for the value of their oils are on the endangered species list and now cannot be hunted.
For example, sperm whale products like ambergris have been outlawed since Also, most animal oils in general are difficult and expensive to extract. Deer musk must come from deer found in Tibet and China; civet cats, bred in Ethiopia, are kept for their fatty gland secretions; beavers from Canada and the former Soviet Union are harvested for their castor. Synthetic perfumes have allowed perfumers more freedom and stability in their craft, even though natural ingredients are considered more desirable in the very finest perfumes.
The use of synthetic perfumes and oils eliminates the need to extract oils from animals and removes the risk of a bad plant harvest, saving much expense and the lives of many animals. Perfumes today are being made and used in different ways than in previous centuries. Perfumes are being manufactured more and more frequently with synthetic chemicals rather than natural oils. Less concentrated forms of perfume are also becoming increasingly popular. Combined, these factors decrease the cost of the scents, encouraging more widespread and frequent, often daily, use.
Using perfume to heal, make people feel good, and improve relationships between the sexes are the new frontiers being explored by the industry. The sense of smell is considered a right brain activity, which rules emotions, memory, and creativity. Aromatherapy—smelling oils and fragrances to cure physical and emotional problems—is being revived to help balance hormonal and body energy.
The theory behind aromatherapy states that using essential oils helps bolster the immune system when inhaled or applied topically. Smelling sweet smells also affects one's mood and can be used as a form of psychotherapy. Like aromatherapy, more research is being conducted to synthesize human perfume—that is, the body scents we produce to attract or repel other humans. Humans, like other mammals, release pheromones to attract the opposite sex.
New perfumes are being created to duplicate the effect of pheromones and stimulate sexual arousal receptors in the brain. Not only may the perfumes of the future help people cover up "bad" smells, they could improve their physical and emotional well-being as well as their sex lives. Bylinsky, Gene. Green, Timothy. Iverson, Annemarie. Lord, Shirley. Raphael, Anna. Toggle navigation. Made How Volume 2 Perfume Perfume. Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur.
Also read article about Perfume from Wikipedia. User Contributions: 1. I am going to be making a perfume box for a GCSE project. I need to know how perfume boxes are made,,.
Hi iam chemical engineer in iran. Leonard Bryan. I would like to have perfume oils made. I have two samples of Plumeria and Gardenia oils. Let me know what I should do.
Thank You, Robert Crighton. Please, i want to go into perfume manufacture and i don't know how to extract oil from insects please help me Thank you very much your article very use full and interesting I am working perfume manufacturing last 12 year in middle east I have 25 years experience in selling perfume of branded, un branded middle class and mass market perfumes in the middle east and Asia.
A Leading Fragrance Manufacturing & Scent Designing Company
Our Company. Geneva, Switzerland November 4, — Firmenich announced today that it has reached an agreement to establish a joint venture with MG International Fragrance Company. MG International operates a world-class, high-concept creation center in greater Istanbul, where customers are welcomed into one of the most innovative environments in the fragrance industry globally. The center also includes a state-of-the-art, 20,square-meter manufacturing facility. We share the same passion for creative perfumery, a common culture of lasting relationships with our customers, and enduring family values caring for our people and the planet.
Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin , which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone. The word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare , meaning "to smoke through". Perfumery, as the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia , Egypt , the Indus Valley Civilization and maybe Ancient China. It was further refined by the Romans and the Arabs.
Firmenich to Partner with MG International Fragrance Company & the Gulcicek Family
Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own odor by using perfume, which emulates nature's pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry, temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on any two people. Perfume comes from the Latin "per" meaning "through" and "fumum," or "smoke. The oil was then burned to scent the air. Today, most perfume is used to scent bar soaps. Some products are even perfumed with industrial odorants to mask unpleasant smells or to appear "unscented. While fragrant liquids used for the body are often considered perfume, true perfumes are defined as extracts or essences and contain a percentage of oil distilled in alcohol.
As fragrance creators, BioAroma has been making the world smell better, one customized scent at a time, for more than seven decades. Every day, BioAroma touches the lives of people around the world. We understand and respect the power of scent as one might revere the eternal supremacy of the ocean. Our clients come to us for our captivating and unique fragrance compositions, created layer by layer by some of the most talented artisans in the scent industry.
Может быть, все это чепуха, - сказала Мидж, - но в статистических данных по шифровалке вдруг вылезло что-то несуразное.
Повисло молчание. Казалось, эта туша собирается что-то сказать, но не может подобрать слов. Его нижняя губа на мгновение оттопырилась, но заговорил он не.
Слова, сорвавшиеся с его языка, были определенно произнесены на английском, но настолько искажены сильным немецким акцентом, что их смысл не сразу дошел до Беккера.
Однако в том, что команда на отпирание действительно вводилась, не было никаких сомнений. Сьюзан в изумлении смотрела на монитор. Хейл влез в ее компьютер, когда она выходила.
Но, приближаясь к рубильнику, Стратмор понял, что ему необходимо преодолеть еще одно препятствие - тело Чатрукьяна на ребрах охлаждения генератора.
Вырубить электропитание и снова его включить значило лишь вызвать повторное замыкание. Труп надо передвинуть. Стратмор медленно приближался к застывшему в гротескной лозе телу, не сводя с него глаз. Он схватил убитого за запястье; кожа была похожа на обгоревший пенопласт, тело полностью обезвожено.
Вы сказали, что он приходил. Беккер услышал, как его собеседница листает книгу заказов. Там не окажется никакого Клауса, но Беккер понимал, что клиенты далеко не всегда указывают свои подлинные имена. - Хм-м, извините, - произнесла женщина. - Не нахожу. Как, вы сказали, имя девушки, которую нанял ваш брат.
Джабба окончательно убедился: директор рискнул и проиграл. Шеф службы обеспечения систем безопасности спустился с подиума подобно грозовой туче, сползающей с горы, и окинул взглядом свою бригаду программистов, отдающих какие-то распоряжения. - Начинаем отключение резервного питания. Приготовиться. Приступайте.
- Ни вчера, ни. Бринкерхофф пожал плечами: - Быть может, ребята заняты сложной диагностикой. Мидж покачала головой: - Настолько сложной, что она длится уже восемнадцать часов? - Она выдержала паузу.
Поскольку в шифровалке имелось автономное энергоснабжение, на главный распределительный щит, наверное, даже не поступил сигнал, что здесь произошла авария.
- Основное энергоснабжение вырубилось, - сказал Стратмор, возникший за спиной Сьюзан. - Включилось питание от автономных генераторов.
ГЛАВА 12 Дэвиду Беккеру приходилось бывать на похоронах и видеть мертвых, но на этот раз его глазам открылось нечто особенно действующее на нервы. Это не был тщательно загримированный покойник в обитом шелком гробу.
Обнаженное тело, бесцеремонно брошенное на алюминиевый стол. Глаза, которые еще не приобрели отсутствующего безжизненного взгляда, закатились вверх и уставились в потолок с застывшим в них выражением ужаса и печали.
- Dоnde estan sus efectos? - спросил Беккер на беглом кастильском наречии.
Двое суток встроенные часы устройств обменивались бесконечными потоками зашифрованной синхронизирующейся информации. АНБ, перехватывая эти информационные импульсы, игнорировало их, считая аномалией сети, безобидной тарабарщиной.
Но когда ТРАНСТЕКСТ расшифровал эти потоки информации, аналитики тут же увидели в них синхронизированный через Интернет отсчет времени. Устройства были обнаружены и удалены за целых три часа до намеченного срока взрыва. Сьюзан знала, что без ТРАНСТЕКСТА агентство беспомощно перед современным электронным терроризмом.
Она взглянула на работающий монитор.
Около двадцати минут. Их надо использовать с толком. Фонтейн долго молчал. Потом, тяжело вздохнув, скомандовал: - Хорошо.