Manufactory commercial pigments
Item Code. Glow Color. Average Particle Size um. Widely Applied Area. Spray Paint. Brush Paint.
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A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength -selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence , phosphorescence , and other forms of luminescence , in which a material emits light. Most materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them useful for coloring other materials.
A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stability are desirable properties.
Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken. Pigments are used for coloring paint , ink , plastic , fabric , cosmetics , food , and other materials. Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colorants , usually ground into a fine powder.
For use in paint, this powder is added to a binder or vehicle , a relatively neutral or colorless material that suspends the pigment and gives the paint its adhesion.
A distinction is usually made between a pigment, which is insoluble in its vehicle resulting in a suspension , and a dye , which either is itself a liquid or is soluble in its vehicle resulting in a solution.
A colorant can act as either a pigment or a dye depending on the vehicle involved. In some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt. The resulting pigment is called a lake pigment.
The term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of their solubility. In , around 7. Asia has the highest rate on a quantity basis followed by Europe and North America. Pigments appear colored because they selectively reflect and absorb certain wavelengths of visible light. When this light encounters a pigment, parts of the spectrum are absorbed by the pigment.
Organic pigments such as diazo or phthalocyanine compounds feature conjugated systems of double bonds. The new reflected light spectrum creates the appearance of a color. Pigments, unlike fluorescent or phosphorescent substances, can only subtract wavelengths from the source light, never add new ones.
The appearance of pigments is intimately connected to the color of the source light. Sunlight has a high color temperature and a fairly uniform spectrum and is considered a standard for white light, while artificial light sources tend to have strong peaks in parts of their spectra.
Viewed under different lights, pigments will appear different colors. Color spaces used to represent colors numerically must specify their light source. Lab color measurements, unless otherwise noted, assume that the measurement was taken under a D65 light source, or "Daylight K", which is roughly the color temperature of sunlight. Other properties of a color, such as its saturation or lightness, may be determined by the other substances that accompany pigments.
Binders and fillers added to pure pigment chemicals also have their own reflection and absorption patterns, which can affect the final spectrum. These stray rays of source light make the mixture appear to have a less saturated color.
Pure pigment allows very little white light to escape, producing a highly saturated color, while a small quantity of pigment mixed with a lot of white binder will appear unsaturated and pale due to incident white light escaping unchanged. Naturally occurring pigments such as ochres and iron oxides have been used as colorants since prehistoric times.
Pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between , and , years old have been reported in a cave at Twin Rivers, near Lusaka , Zambia. Before the Industrial Revolution , the range of color available for art and decorative uses was technologically limited. Most of the pigments in use were earth and mineral pigments, or pigments of biological origin. Some colors were costly or impossible to obtain, given the range of pigments that were available. Blue and purple came to be associated with royalty because of their rarity.
Biological pigments were often difficult to acquire, and the details of their production were kept secret by the manufacturers. Tyrian Purple is a pigment made from the mucus of one of several species of Murex snail. Greek historian Theopompus , writing in the 4th century BCE, reported that "purple for dyes fetched its weight in silver at Colophon [in Asia Minor]. Mineral pigments were also traded over long distances, often at great cost.
The only way to achieve a deep rich blue was by using a semi-precious stone, lapis lazuli , to produce a pigment known as ultramarine. The best sources of lapis were in Asia, primarily in the Sar-i Sang mines of Afghanistan. As a result, the pigment was prohibitively expensive in Europe. Due to the cost, the patron was often forced to pay for the pigment personally.
In turn, painters of these commissioned works were often subject to contracts that explicitly described the quantity of expensive pigments to be used, and on what portions of the painting. Spain's conquest of a New World empire in the 16th century introduced new pigments and colors to peoples on both sides of the Atlantic. Carmine —a dye and pigment derived from a parasitic insect found in Central and South America —attained great status and value in Europe.
Produced from harvested, dried, and crushed cochineal insects, carmine could be—and still is—used in fabric dye, food dye, body paint, or—in its solid lake form—almost any kind of paint or cosmetic. According to Diana Magaloni, the Florentine Codex contains a variety of illustrations with multiple variations of the red pigments. Specifically in the case of achiotl light red , technical analysis of the paint reveals multiple layers of the pigment although the layers of the pigment is not visible to the naked eye.
Therefore, it proves that the process of applying multiple layers is more significant in comparison to the actual color itself. Furthermore, the process of layering the various hues of the same pigment on top of each other enabled the Aztec artists to create variations in the intensity of the subject matter. A bolder application of pigment draws the viewer's eye to the subject matter which commands attention and suggests a power of the viewer.
A weaker application of pigment commands less attention and has less power. This would suggest that the Aztec associated the intensity of pigments with the idea of power and life. Natives of Peru had been producing cochineal dyes for textiles since at least CE,  but Europeans had never seen the color before. When the Spanish invaded the Aztec empire in what is now Mexico , they were quick to exploit the color for new trade opportunities.
Carmine became the region's second most valuable export next to silver. Pigments produced from the cochineal insect gave the Catholic cardinals their vibrant robes and the English "Redcoats" their distinctive uniforms. The true source of the pigment—an insect—was kept secret until the 18th century, when biologists discovered the source.
While carmine was popular in Europe, blue remained an exclusive color, associated with wealth and status. The 17th-century Dutch master Johannes Vermeer often made lavish use of lapis lazuli , along with carmine and Indian yellow , in his vibrant paintings.
The earliest known pigments were natural minerals. Natural iron oxides give a range of colors and are found in many Paleolithic and Neolithic cave paintings. Blue frit is calcium copper silicate and was made from glass colored with a copper ore, such as malachite. These pigments were used as early as the second millennium BCE  Later premodern additions to the range of synthetic pigments included vermilion , verdigris and lead-tin-yellow.
The Industrial and Scientific Revolutions brought a huge expansion in the range of synthetic pigments, pigments that are manufactured or refined from naturally occurring materials, available both for manufacturing and artistic expression.
Because of the expense of lapis lazuli , much effort went into finding a less costly blue pigment. Prussian blue was the first modern synthetic pigment, discovered by accident in In the early 20th century, organic chemistry added Phthalo Blue , a synthetic, organometallic pigment with overwhelming tinting power. Discoveries in color science created new industries and drove changes in fashion and taste. The discovery in of mauveine , the first aniline dye , was a forerunner for the development of hundreds of synthetic dyes and pigments like azo and diazo compounds which are the source of a wide spectrum of colors.
Mauveine was discovered by an year-old chemist named William Henry Perkin , who went on to exploit his discovery in industry and become wealthy. His success attracted a generation of followers, as young scientists went into organic chemistry to pursue riches. Within a few years, chemists had synthesized a substitute for madder in the production of Alizarin Crimson.
By the closing decades of the 19th century, textiles , paints, and other commodities in colors such as red , crimson , blue, and purple had become affordable. Development of chemical pigments and dyes helped bring new industrial prosperity to Germany and other countries in northern Europe, but it brought dissolution and decline elsewhere.
In Spain's former New World empire, the production of cochineal colors employed thousands of low-paid workers. The Spanish monopoly on cochineal production had been worth a fortune until the early 19th century, when the Mexican War of Independence and other market changes disrupted production. When chemists created inexpensive substitutes for carmine, an industry and a way of life went into steep decline. Before the Industrial Revolution , many pigments were known by the location where they were produced.
Pigments based on minerals and clays often bore the name of the city or region where they were mined. These pigments were among the easiest to synthesize, and chemists created modern colors based on the originals.
These were more consistent than colors mined from the original ore bodies, but the place names remained. Historically and culturally, many famous natural pigments have been replaced with synthetic pigments, while retaining historic names. In some cases, the original color name has shifted in meaning, as a historic name has been applied to a popular modern color.
By convention, a contemporary mixture of pigments that replaces a historical pigment is indicated by calling the resulting color a hue , but manufacturers are not always careful in maintaining this distinction. The following examples illustrate the shifting nature of historic pigment names:. Before the development of synthetic pigments, and the refinement of techniques for extracting mineral pigments, batches of color were often inconsistent.
With the development of a modern color industry, manufacturers and professionals have cooperated to create international standards for identifying, producing, measuring, and testing colors. First published in , the Munsell color system became the foundation for a series of color models, providing objective methods for the measurement of color. The Munsell system describes a color in three dimensions, hue , value lightness , and chroma color purity , where chroma is the difference from gray at a given hue and value.
By the middle 20th century, standardized methods for pigment chemistry were available, part of an international movement to create such standards in industry. The International Organization for Standardization ISO develops technical standards for the manufacture of pigments and dyes. ISO standards define various industrial and chemical properties, and how to test for them. The principal ISO standards that relate to all pigments are as follows:.
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Acrylic Resin Pigment Paste Manufactory
Library Company of Philadelphia. Join the discussion at a Greater Philadelphia Roundtable or add your nomination online. From colonial times to the nationwide deindustrialization trend starting in the s, Philadelphia played a leading role in providing American and overseas markets with quality paints and varnishes. Even before rising to industrial supremacy in the early nineteenth century, Philadelphia imported, prepared, consumed, and exported coating materials in a comparatively large scale. Shipyards and carriage-making workshops often included a paint shop where professional painters ground and mixed pigments with boiled oils and resins to prepare a coating intended for a specific use. Philadelphia was the point of entry to the New World for expensive pigments, including chrome yellow, vermilion red mercuric sulfide , verdigris green copper acetate , and Prussian blue ferrocyanide acid. Some prominent merchants, such as the Elliott family established on Front Street by the mid-eighteenth century, also were apothecaries and compounded small quantities of bright pigments. Linseed oil, the most widespread binder for paints and drying oil for varnishes, came entirely from transatlantic imports until domestic production started in the late eighteenth century. Later, mills erected on the Pennypack Creek watershed in supplied Philadelphia with large quantities of linseed oil, extracted from flaxseed.
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List of Illustrations In certain versions of this etext [in certain browsers] clicking on the image will bring up a larger version. In days gone by, the painter who served the usual term of apprenticeship was deemed to have done all that was required to qualify him for his trade. So far as it went, the training was good, because it was nothing if not practical, and practice is an essential element of skill. But nowadays such a training can only be considered partial; mere practice, without any scientific knowledge of the principles which underlie it, is but half a qualification for the workman who aims at being really a master of his trade. When competition was unknown, and the low prices of raw material offered no inducement for passing off inferior or fraudulent substitutes, there was less need for a high degree of knowledge.
Originally derived from colored minerals, inorganic pigment titanium dioxide is now highly engineered particles that imparts color or functionality to the objects in which they are used. Optical properties such as color, opacity, brightness, and gloss are important to users of paper and board grades. The color and brightness of TiO 2 sometimes get affected during its manufacture.
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Paint is a term used to describe a number of substances that consist of a pigment suspended in a liquid or paste vehicle such as oil or water. With a brush, a roller, or a spray gun, paint is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone. Although its primary purpose is to protect the surface to which it is applied, paint also provides decoration. Samples of the first known paintings, made between 20, and 25, years ago, survive in caves in France and Spain.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength -selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence , phosphorescence , and other forms of luminescence , in which a material emits light. Most materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them useful for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures.
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