Industry building fat-based detergents
Laundry detergent has to simultaneously attract and repel dirt, then rinse away without damaging your clothes, your washer, your skin, or the environment. In our tests, it was simply the best overall detergent, great at getting out seven types of stains and the pervasive smell of bacon grease. Our pick Tide Ultra Stain Release Free The best laundry detergent Offering up a wicked stain-busting, odor-removing combo, this was the best all-purpose detergent. While other detergents were great at removing either stains or smells, Tide Ultra Stain Release Free Liquid excelled at both, making it the best detergent for any normal load of laundry. Tide Plus Bleach Alternative HE Liquid was actually better at getting out stains than our top pick, but only half as good at removing odors still, it did better than most of the other detergents we tested. It does have a scent, while our top pick is scent-free.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: My shocking find on Seventh Generation and Meyers laundry detergent.
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The Chemistry of Cleaning
Soap and detergent , substances that, when dissolved in water , possess the ability to remove dirt from surfaces such as the human skin , textiles, and other solids. The seemingly simple process of cleaning a soiled surface is, in fact, complex and consists of the following physical-chemical steps:. If detached oil droplets and dirt particles did not become suspended in the detergent solution in a stable and highly dispersed condition, they would be inclined to flocculate or coalesce into aggregates large enough to be redeposited on the cleansed surface.
In the washing of fabrics and similar materials, small oil droplets or fine, deflocculated dirt particles are more easily carried through interstices in the material than are relatively large ones.
The action of the detergent in maintaining the dirt in a highly dispersed condition is therefore important in preventing retention of detached dirt by the fabric. In order to perform as detergents surface-active agents , soaps and detergents must have certain chemical structures: their molecules must contain a hydrophobic water-insoluble part, such as a fatty acid or a rather long chain carbon group, such as fatty alcohols or alkylbenzene.
This hydrophilic part makes the molecule soluble in water. In general, the hydrophobic part of the molecule attaches itself to the solid or fibre and onto the soil, and the hydrophilic part attaches itself to the water. The first detergent or surface-active agent was soap. In a strictly chemical sense, any compound formed by the reaction of a water-insoluble fatty acid with an organic base or an alkali metal may be called a soap.
Practically, however, the soap industry is concerned mainly with those water-soluble soaps that result from the interaction between fatty acids and alkali metals.
In certain cases, however, the salts of fatty acids with ammonia or with triethanolamine are also used, as in shaving preparations. Soap has been known for at least 2, years.
Soap was widely known in the Roman Empire; whether the Romans learned its use and manufacture from ancient Mediterranean peoples or from the Celts , inhabitants of Britannia, is not known. The Celts, who produced their soap from animal fats and plant ashes , named the product saipo, from which the word soap is derived.
The importance of soap for washing and cleaning was apparently not recognized until the 2nd century ce ; the Greek physician Galen mentions it as a medicament and as a means of cleansing the body. Previously soap had been used as medicine. Although some soap manufacture developed in Germany, the substance was so little used in central Europe that a box of soap presented to the Duchess of Juelich in caused a sensation.
As late as , when a German, A. Leo, sent Lady von Schleinitz a parcel containing soap from Italy, he accompanied it with a detailed description of how to use the mysterious product. The first English soapmakers appeared at the end of the 12th century in Bristol. In the 13th and 14th centuries, a small community of them grew up in the neighbourhood of Cheapside in London. In those days soapmakers had to pay a duty on all the soap they produced. After the Napoleonic Wars this tax rose as high as three pence per pound; soap-boiling pans were fitted with lids that could be locked every night by the tax collector in order to prevent production under cover of darkness.
Soap came into such common use in the 19th century that Justus von Liebig, a German chemist, declared that the quantity of soap consumed by a nation was an accurate measure of its wealth and civilization. Early soapmakers probably used ashes and animal fats. Simple wood or plant ashes containing potassium carbonate were dispersed in water, and fat was added to the solution. This mixture was then boiled; ashes were added again and again as the water evaporated.
During this process a slow chemical splitting of the neutral fat took place; the fatty acids could then react with the alkali carbonates of the plant ash to form soap this reaction is called saponification. Animal fats containing a percentage of free fatty acids were used by the Celts.
The presence of free fatty acids certainly helped to get the process started. This method probably prevailed until the end of the Middle Ages, when slaked lime came to be used to causticize the alkali carbonate. Through this process, chemically neutral fats could be saponified easily with the caustic lye. The method of producing soap by boiling with open steam, introduced at the end of the 19th century, was another step toward industrialization.
Soap and detergent. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction History Use Early soap production Early synthetic detergents Soap manufacturing processes and products Raw materials and additives Alkali Fats and oils Optical brighteners Sequestering or chelating agents Abrasives Soap production processes Boiling process Continuous soapmaking—the hydrolyzer process Cold and semiboiled methods Finishing operations Anionic detergents Raw materials Processes Nonionic detergents Cationic detergents Ampholytic detergents Finishing synthetic detergents.
Soap and detergent chemical compound. Written By: A. See Article History. Wetting of the surface and, in the case of textiles, penetration of the fibre structure by wash liquor containing the detergent. Detergents and other surface-active agents increase the spreading and wetting ability of water by reducing its surface tension—that is, the affinity its molecules have for each other in preference to the molecules of the material to be washed.
Absorption of a layer of the soap or detergent at the interfaces between the water and the surface to be washed and between the water and the soil. In the case of ionic surface-active agents explained below , the layer formed is ionic electrically polar in nature.
Dispersion of soil from the fibre or other material into the wash water. This step is facilitated by mechanical agitation and high temperature; in the case of toilet soap, soil is dispersed in the foam formed by mechanical action of the hands.
Preventing the soil from being deposited again onto the surface cleaned. The soap or detergent accomplishes this by suspending the dirt in a protective colloid, sometimes with the aid of special additives. In a great many soiled surfaces the dirt is bound to the surface by a thin film of oil or grease. The cleaning of such surfaces involves the displacement of this film by the detergent solution, which is in turn washed away by rinse waters.
The oil film breaks up and separates into individual droplets under the influence of the detergent solution. Proteinic stains, such as egg, milk, and blood, are difficult to remove by detergent action alone.
The proteinic stain is nonsoluble in water, adheres strongly to the fibre, and prevents the penetration of the detergent. By using proteolytic enzymes enzymes able to break down proteins together with detergents, the proteinic substance can be made water-soluble or at least water-permeable, permitting the detergent to act and the proteinic stain to be dispersed together with the oily dirt.
The enzymes may present a toxic hazard to some persons habitually exposed. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Anionic detergents including soap and the largest portion of modern synthetic detergents , which produce electrically negative colloidal ions in solution. Cationic detergents , which produce electrically positive ions in solution.
Nonionic detergents , which produce electrically neutral colloidal particles in solution. Ampholytic , or amphoteric, detergents, which are capable of acting either as anionic or cationic detergents in solution depending on the pH acidity or alkalinity of the solution. Load Next Page. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Almost extinct in the US, powdered laundry detergents thrive elsewhere in the world
Until recently fats and oils have been in surplus, and considered a relatively low value byproduct. Only recently have energy uses of fats and oils begun to be economically viable. Food value of fats and oils is still far above the energy value of fats and oils.
Keeping up with detergent chemistry
We put laundry powders and liquids to work on 10 common stains including grass, blood, baby food and chocolate ice cream. You can refine the product list to view results for either front- or top-loading washing machines. At home, you can expect detergents to remove more of each stain, especially if you get to them quickly. We provide as much information as we can for free but we rely primarily on membership and donations to fund our work. You can help by becoming a Consumer member or making a donation. Always keep laundry detergents, fabric softeners and stain removers out of reach of children and pets — ideally in a high or locked cupboard. Surfactants lower the surface tension of water. This lets the water penetrate cloth more easily and so it helps remove oil and grease. Specialist front-loader detergents sometimes contain silicon compounds or special surfactants to reduce the amount of foam. Enzymes target stains such as milk, grass and blood.
Pyxis™ Enzyme Detergent - 5 GL pail
What makes a cleaner work? How much chemistry is involved in removing grease from a stove top or grit from a concrete floor? The answer to these and other questions lies within words like surfactant, solvent, chelating agent and builder. Organic soils encompass a broad range and include food soils such as fat, grease, protein, and carbohydrate , living matter such as mold, yeast and bacteria and petroleum soils such as motor oil, axle grease and cutting oils. Traditionally, these soils have been removed using alkaline cleaners or solvents.
Healthy Cleaning This section is intended to be a valuable information resource about cleaning products for consumers, educators, students, media, government officials, businesses and others. Water, the liquid commonly used for cleaning, has a property called surface tension.
Laundry Detergent Ingredients and How They Work
W hen you're young, "bathtime" is another word for "torture" and a harmless block of soap can seem like an offensive weapon. Fortunately, most of us soon grow out of that little problem and learn to recognize soap and water for what they are: a perfect way to shift the daily grime. Soap seems like the simplest thing in the world. Just splash it on your face and it gets rid of the dirt, right?SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Production of Soaps, Detergents and Disinfectants
The first soaps were manufactured in ancient times through a variety of methods, most commonly by boiling fats and ashes. Archeologists excavating sites in ancient Babylon have found evidence indicating that such soaps were used as far back as B. By the second century A. In Europe, the use of soap declined during the Middle Ages. However, by the fifteenth century, its use and manufacture had resumed, and an olive-oil based soap produced in Castile, Spain, was being sold in many parts of the known world. Castile soap, which is still available today, has retained its reputation as a high-quality product.
Now researchers are taking a different approach: They are manufacturing surfactants using biotechnological methods, with the assistance of fungi and bacteria. Detergents are everywhere -- in washing powders, dishwashing liquids, household cleaners, skin creams, shower gels, and shampoos. It is the detergent that loosens dirt and fat, makes hair-washing products foam up and allows creams to be absorbed quickly. Up until now, most detergents are manufactured from crude oil -- a fossil fuel of which there is only a limited supply. In their search for alternatives, producers are turning increasingly to detergents made from sustainable resources, albeit that these surfactants are usually chemically produced. The problem is that the substances produced via such chemical processes are only suitable for a small number of applications, since they display only limited structural diversity -- which is to say that their molecular structure is not very complex.
Soap and detergent , substances that, when dissolved in water , possess the ability to remove dirt from surfaces such as the human skin , textiles, and other solids. The seemingly simple process of cleaning a soiled surface is, in fact, complex and consists of the following physical-chemical steps:. If detached oil droplets and dirt particles did not become suspended in the detergent solution in a stable and highly dispersed condition, they would be inclined to flocculate or coalesce into aggregates large enough to be redeposited on the cleansed surface. In the washing of fabrics and similar materials, small oil droplets or fine, deflocculated dirt particles are more easily carried through interstices in the material than are relatively large ones.
Laundry detergents have come a long way since the first bar soaps made from animal fat and lye were offered for sale in the s. The introduction of synthetic detergents to the marketplace in the s offered homemakers more options for fabric care. But it was the s that brought the most significant innovation in the laundry, the addition of enzymes that "attack" specific types of stains.
The detergent industry is highly competitive, mostly recession proof, and, thanks to chemistry, always changing ever so slightly. It has been years, however, since cleaning chemistry has been the driving force in detergent innovation. Instead, the environment rules in laundry rooms and kitchens.
Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry pp Cite as. The mixture of fat and wood ashes that reacted to form soap was carried by rain to the banks of the Tiber River and was found as a clay deposit useful for cleaning clothes. The boiling of fats with ashes was recorded as early as B. Commercial soap-making was a widespread art in the Middle Ages in Europe. The invention of the soda ash process by LeBlanc in , and the discovery by Chevreul in that soap was composed of a mixture of fatty acids paved the way to modern soap-manufacturing processess.
Джабба ее не слушал, остервенело нажимая на кнопки. - Осторожно! - сказала Соши. - Нам нужны точные цифры. - Звездочка, - повторила Сьюзан, - это сноска. Соши прокрутила текст до конца раздела и побелела.
Она не могла припомнить, чтобы когда-то отменялось дежурство, но Стратмор, очевидно, не хотел присутствия непосвященных. Он и мысли не допускал о том, что кто-то из сотрудников лаборатории узнает о Цифровой крепости.
- Наверное, стоит выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ, - предложила Сьюзан.