Factory yarn produced by the flax industry
About Linen. Linen is yarn, and fabric made from flax fibres. Before linen is produced, the fibre is first removed from the flax plant. Linen manufacturing is a complicated and lengthy process which requires great skill at each stage of production:.
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- Our business
- The Story of Irish Linen: Flax to Fabric
- What is Linen Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where
- Factory Price Production Line Wet Flax Yarn Ring Spinning Machine
- Conversion to yarn
- About Flax
- Background history of Linen from the flax in the field to finished linen cloth
- LINEN TYPE SPINNING
- Textile manufacture during the British Industrial Revolution
- Conversion to yarn
Linen yarn is spun from the long fibers found just behind the bark in the multi-layer stem of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum. In order to retrieve the fibers from the plant, the woody stem and the inner pith called pectin , which holds the fibers together in a clump, must be rotted away. The cellulose fiber from the stem is spinnable and is used in the production of linen thread, cordage, and twine.
From linen thread or yarn, fine toweling and dress fabrics may be woven. Linen fabric is a popular choice for warm-weather clothing. It feels cool in the summer but appears crisp and fresh even in hot weather. Household linens truly made of linen become more supple and soft to the touch with use; thus, linen was once the bedsheet of choice. While the flax plant is not difficult to grow, it flourishes best in cool, humid climates and within moist, well-plowed soil.
The process for separating the flax fibers from the plant's woody stock is laborious and painstaking and must be done in an area where labor is plentiful and relatively inexpensive.
It is remarkable that while there is some mechanization to parts of the fiber preparation, some fiber preparation is still done by hand as it has been for centuries. This may be due to the care that must be taken with the fragile flax fibers inside the woody stalk, which might be adversely affected by mechanized processing.
However, the grade of fiber the plants yield in different parts of the world varies. Many believe that Belgium grows the finest-quality flax fibers in the world, with Scottish and Irish linen not far behind. There is no commercial production of linen fabric in any significant quantity in the United States except, perhaps, by individual hand spinners and hand weavers. Thus, the linen fabrics Americans use and wear are nearly all imported into the country from one of these flax-growing and weaving countries.
Flax has been cultivated for its remarkable fiber, linen, for at least five millennia. The spinning and weaving of linen is depicted on wall paintings of ancient Egypt. As early as 3, B. Mentioned several times in the Bible, it has been used as a cool, comfortable fiber in the Middle East for centuries as well. Ancient Greeks and Romans greatly valued it as a commodity. Finnish traders are believed to have introduced flax to Northern Europe where it has been under cultivation for centuries.
Both wool and linen were tremendously important fibers in the New World. Relatively easy to grow, American settlers were urged to plant a small plot of flax as early as the seventeenth century. While flax is easy to grow, settlers knew all too well the tedious chore of processing the woody stalks for its supple linen. Before the industrial revolution much sturdy, homemade clothing was woven from linen cultivated, processed, spun, dyed, woven, and sewn by hand.
It may be argued that until the eighteenth century, linen was the most important textile in the world. By the late eighteenth century, cotton became the fiber that was most easily and inexpensively processed and woven in the mechanized British and New England textile mills. By the s, linen production had virtually been abandoned in the United States because it was so much cheaper to buy the factory-made cotton. Some New Englanders of Scot or Irish background continued to cultivate some flax for processing into linen used for fancy domestic linens such as bedsheets, toweling, and decorative tableclothes as their ancestors had for centuries.
However, most Americans abandoned the cultivation of the plant in this country and instead chose cheap cotton that was carded, spun, woven, and roller-printed for just pennies a yard. Thereafter and until recently, a different variety of flax plant was raised in this country not for its linen fibers but for its seeds which exude a useful vegetable oil known as linseed oil when pressed. All that is needed to turn flax fiber into linen, and then spin and weave the linen fibers into linen fabric is the cellulose flax fiber from the stem of the flax plant.
The process for separating the fibers from the woody stalk can use either water or chemicals, but these are ultimately washed away and are not part of the finished material. The manufacture of linen yarn requires no special design processes. All that has to be determined prior to manufacturing is the thickness of the yarn to be spun.
That will depend on the grade of linen in production and the demands of the customer. European flax wheel used to spin flax into linen thread. This is a European "flax wheel" used to spin flax into linen thread within the home. Folklore tells us that it was brought by Henry Ford's Irish grandmother to the New World; it was one of the few family keepsakes Ford had from his Irish ancestors.
In fact, it was not unusual for the Scots or Irish to bring such wheels to this country. The British Isles have a long and proud linen tradition, and even decades after others abandoned linen production for cotton in the New World the Irish and Scots here tenaciously clung to their linen-making traditions. Ford's grandmother placed unspun flax on the tall, vertical, turned distaff and then push the treadle with her foot to power the wheel.
The bobbin and flyer mounted horizontally in the center of the wheel would spin the flax and wind it on the bobbin at the same time. The rather small wheel below the bobbin required the spinner to treadle rafher fast to keep it moving and because of the small wheel this spinning wheel was not a popular style.
It is lovely to look at, though, as this flax wheel is rather fancy, with inlaid bone or ivory set within the wheel. Some refer to this type of European spinning wheel as a "castle" or "parlor" wheel because of its lovely inlays and turnings. Flax plants are poor competitors with weeds. Weeds reduce fiber yields and increase the difficulty in harvesting the plant. Tillage of the soil reduces weeds as do herbicides. When the flax plants are just a few inches high, the area must be carefully weeded so as not to disturb the delicate sprouts.
In three months, the plants are straight, slender stalks that may be ft cm in height with small blue or white fibers. Flax plants with blue flowers yield the finest linen fibers.
Retting may be accomplished in a variety of ways. In some parts of the world, linen is still retted by hand, using moisture to rot away the bark. The stalks are spread on dewy slopes, submerged in stagnant pools of water, or placed in running streams.
Workers must wait for the water to begin rotting or fermenting the stem—sometimes more than a week or two. However, most manufacturers use chemicals for retting. The plants are placed in a solution either of alkali or oxalic acid, then pressurized and boiled. This method is easy to monitor and rather quick, although some believe that chemical retting adversely affects the color and strength of the fiber and hand retting produces the finest linen.
Vat or mechanical retting requires that the stalks be submerged in vats of warm water, hastening the decomposition of the stem. The flax is then removed from the vats and passed between rollers to crush the bark as clean water flushes away the pectin and other impurities.
Of greatest concern are the chemicals used in retting. These chemicals must be neutralized before being released into water supplies. The stalks, leaves, seed pods, etc. The only other concern with the processing of linen is the smell—it is said that hand-retted linen produces quite a stench and is most unpleasant to experience. The Irish Linen Guild. Irish Linen: The Fabric of Elegance. Jerde, Judith. Encyclopedia of Textiles.
NY: Facts on File Inc. Koob, Katharine. Linen Making in New England. Calhoun, Wheeler and Lee Kirschner. Toggle navigation. Made How Volume 4 Linen Linen. Once flax is harvested and the fiber removed from the stalks, a scutching machine removes the broken outer layer called shives.
The fiber is combed and separated by length. Line fibers long linen fibers are spun into linen yarn. Periodicals Calhoun, Wheeler and Lee Kirschner. Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur. Also read article about Linen from Wikipedia. User Contributions: 1. Hi, Just want to know what machinery set up we use to spin linen yarn. Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic: Name:. E-mail: Show my email publicly.
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The Story of Irish Linen: Flax to Fabric
Because filaments, such as silk and the man-made fibres, have extreme length, they can be made into yarn without the spinning operation necessary for the shorter staple fibres. When grouped together in a loose, continuous rope without twist, man-made filaments are called tow. Filaments may be loosely twisted together to form yarns of a specified thickness. Staple fibres, such as cotton , only a few inches long, must be tightly twisted together to produce satisfactory length. Filament yarns are usually thin, smooth, and lustrous; staple yarns are usually thicker, fibrous, and without lustre.
T o start with, the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum being the Latin name, is a Bast vegetable or hard fibre in the same class as Jute, Hemp, Sisal, Coir or Ramie. It was also grown in Ireland from time immemorial when linen cloth and wool cloth were in the earlier days the only form of woven cloth available for apparel. Cotton only became available with the opening up of the Americas. In Ireland flax was grown by the farmer as a regular crop, particularly in the counties of Down and Antrim, where Scottish settlers brought over with them more efficient methods of growing and processing flax. It is not generally known that during the Second World War large acreages of flax were grown in Co.
What is Linen Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where
The total scale of linen yarn production of Kingdom has reached , spindles with an annual production capacity of more than 18, tons of wet spun linen yarn and it is currently the one of largest linen yarn manufacturers in the world. Kingdom always commit to sustainable development, therefore, it has introduced advanced textile equipment from countries like Germany, France and Italy. Kingdom can produce the most extensive range of product specifications of linen yarn from 3. Kingdom attaches great importance to the proprietary intellectual property rights and is actively developing its own brands. It is one of the best brands recognized by the global textile industry. Kingdom has been pursuing advanced management for lean management and excellent performance and so on. It has been certified not only by ISO quality management system and ISO environmental management system, but also by Oeko-Tex Standard green ecological textile testing. Under its Industry 4.
Factory Price Production Line Wet Flax Yarn Ring Spinning Machine
Linen yarn is spun from the long fibers found just behind the bark in the multi-layer stem of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum. In order to retrieve the fibers from the plant, the woody stem and the inner pith called pectin , which holds the fibers together in a clump, must be rotted away. The cellulose fiber from the stem is spinnable and is used in the production of linen thread, cordage, and twine. From linen thread or yarn, fine toweling and dress fabrics may be woven.
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Conversion to yarn
United States. Bureau of Manufactures. Trang Trang xiii.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How yarn is made - thread yarn factory - yarn factory - Jimming Pvt Ltd
Linen has exceptional properties thanks to nature, its composition and the structure of the flax fibers. But how does this wonderful plant actually become a yarn? Linen type spinning describes the spinning process of the linen plant, which also called flax. Other materials, such as cotton or polyester for example, should be processed by other techniques due to the practisability of linen type spinning. Linen type spinning is designed to process fibers that are not of uniform length due to the linen harvesting process and the different growth rates of the linen plants. Accordingly, a recommended cut- length does not exist for linen type spinning.
European Spinning Group is a family-owned textile group with over employees, located in Flanders, Belgium. The yarns and services from our textile group have been synonymous with absolute quality for many years. A high level of internal specialization, a flexible approach towards customers, tight in-house quality control and an organization built on strong values have enabled us to conquer a vast market covering Europe, North and South America, Africa and extending to Asia and Australia. We observe very strict quality standards. Over one hundred qualified employees with excellent technical training are engaged daily in the development and production of our yarns.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth.
Background history of Linen from the flax in the field to finished linen cloth
Despite competition from China, India and the countries of Central Asia, textile production in Belarus is the largest in Eastern Europe and among the largest in Europe. It constitutes one of the biggest branches in Belarus over enterprises apart from man-made and flax processing plants. Manufacturing of fibres is an important traditional activity. The cultivation of flax, raw material for the production of linen, presents a competitive advantage of Belarusian industry.
LINEN TYPE SPINNING
First and foremost, Safilin is a state of mind, a philosophy Since , our aim has been to acquire expertise and deliver quality with ecological practices! Safilin would not be what it is today without the women and men who make up our teams.
We see its ecological consciousness throughout the industry. Mechanical activities are a part of each operation in its transformation — scutching, combing, spinning, weaving. Counting all stages of production, the European linen industry is made up of 10, companies in 14 countries of the EU : a network of interactive professionnals — growers, scutchers, spinners, weavers, knitters, finishers, traders. Linen helps maintain an economic and social fabric in rural zones. Its growth and transformation require a large, qualified, local work force.
Textile manufacture during the British Industrial Revolution
Based in the North Part of France, in the heart of the world best growing regions for flax fibers, The Flax Company grows with its partners flax fibers which will be used in its productions of linen fabrics and home textile. We have developed strong partnerships in France and Belgium with the scutching mills, with the flax spinning and weaving mills in China and with a stitching factory in India. Consequently we are able to offer traceable goods of highest quality at best price conditions. Our company in in few figures :. A highly skilled professional team at your service from the flax fiber selection to the production of finished products.
Conversion to yarn
The family business is currently run by the fourth generation of Vannestes : Alex Vanneste. We are modifying shortening and refining the long-staple flax and tow into a fiber with the characteristics of cotton, a artificial or synthetic fiber that is suitable to spin on the short staple ring or rotor spinning system. We are certainly the only linen tops supplier offering dyed colors.