Ware units constructive and architectural-building elements of buildings and structures
In this paper we explore what these buildings actually are and how they can contribute to the understanding of the development of social space in Tripolye giant-settlements. For this investigation, we linked newly obtained excavation data from the giant-settlement Maidanetske, Ukraine, with a much larger sample of such buildings from magnetic plans obtained in the region between the Carpathian foothills and the Dnieper River. Accordingly, Tripolye mega-structures represent a particular kind of integrative building documented in many non-ranked ethnographic contexts. Based on our results we are interpreting that these buildings were used for various ritual and non-ritual activities, joint decision-making, and the storage and consumption of surplus.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: 10 MOST IMPRESSIVE Buildings In The World
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Authors Thomas Herzog Prof. Rome Dr. Winfried Heusler Aspects of building physics and planning advice Prof. Michael Volz Timber Expert consultants for the edition: Prof.
Gerhard Hausladen, Dipl. Reiner Letsch, Dr. Volker Wittwer. Research assistants Chair of Building Technology for the edition under the guidance of Prof. Bibliographic information published by the German National Library. This work is subject to copyright. Reproduction of any part of this work in individual cases, too, is only permitted within the limits of the provisions of the valid edition of the copyright law.
A charge will be levied. Infringements will be subject to the penalty clauses of the copyright law. All drawings in this book were made specifically by the publisher. No legal claims can be derived from the contents of this book. There is now an increasing focus once more on facades due to the growing importance taken on by exterior walls in the context of energy consumption issues and options for making use of environmental energy.
The booming Asian megacities show this quite clearly. Aspects that apply generally to the exterior walls of buildings, involving demands made on them, their principal functionality and structural design, have been separated from descriptions of the special features of individual cases.
The book represents more than just a collection of different buildings in various locations and contexts, of different types and technologies. Rather, specific features have been classified and described based on the various materials used in their walls or cladding. Buildings face very different local climatic conditions, depending on the region in which they are located. Out of this confrontation arise the functional demands on an exterior wall.
Various interdependencies exist or must be defined so that each structural system can be geometrically coordinated in the space. Dimensional and modular conditions and proportions must be defined for the building as a whole to be developed. Combining these aspects results in the parameters for material implementation based on the materials and construction methods to be chosen.
If the materials and technologies used to manufacture them are important in defining further specific features, then certain physical, material, installation-related and aesthetic details must also be coordinated.
Here the chapters have been kept separate from examples and precede them. Stone, ceramics and metal, for example, are so significant that whole cultural eras have been named after them. This is now a frequent feature of modern structures made of almost all materials, so structures made of specific materials and special facade construction topics are dealt with in separate chapters.
Planners often simply follow fashionable trends instead of making good use of the main advantages of such structures. Basic errors are often made because there is not enough awareness of structural and energy technology interconnections or of individual variants available for possible use in construction. The integration of directly and indirectly operating solar systems in building envelopes is still uncharted territory for many and successful combinations of practical value, technicalphysical function, design and construction solutions are still the exception rather than the rule, even though the first pioneering applications were implemented decades ago.
Munich, spring Thomas Herzog. New to this edition are three sections that do not deal mainly with specific materials but cover issues that have become increasingly important and need to be examined separately.
It was therefore natural to develop a separate third section of the book covering these six areas. The authors would like to thank all the people, institutions, architects, photographers and companies that have supported our work with their skilful contributions and everyone who worked on the new edition. Sep t eSpeetpt. SSeS ptp.. Oct O. OO O ccttcc.. N NN ovo. N Doevco.. D D e e DeDcce.. Summer Summer Summer Summer Summer 0 6 04 4 6 Supplementary direct-acting measures can support such functions on both sides of the facade.
External conditions: solar radiation. The sun is one of the most central and essential of all site-specific external conditions. It is our greatest direct and indirect energy source and makes all life possible.
Among the main factors influencing these demands that are connected with the facade, are Fig. The principle of double sealing is that a first external seal prevents water on the surface from penetrating and a second seal, perhaps with a hollow-chamber profile, stops air from flowing through.
Turbulence in the interstice e. Installation sequences. Special solutions may be required for joining and sealing reused or refitted structural components e. Elements in the same system can be replaced e. This is especially recommended if there is a risk of damage e. Figure A 2. The number and thickness of the layers and shells vary greatly. Facade water can be drained off through various layers. This reduces the risk of soiling since less dirt is deposited on horizontal surfaces because it is regularly washed off.
Windproofing Facades usually need to be windproof. The following functions often also combined can be allocated to individual layers or shells, e. Water vapour diffusion The water vapour diffusion resistance of layers must generally diminish from the inside to the outside to prevent condensation from forming in a structural component and avoid steam traps. Heat storage Inside layers with good heat storage capacity can be activated to help regulate the interior climate.
Their rear ventilation counteracts the. Improved insulation due to the insulation layer; inner and outer wear and protective layer; heat storage capacity can be used to heat the interior. The structure itself is not energyproducing, even though it is permeable to solar energy, which is absorbed by structural components in the interior; no insulation. Planners should consider factors such as heat transmission, convection and the exchange of long-wave radiation in choosing the properties of materials, structural components and connections.
This is especially important in and around joints, at the bonded edges of glazing and panels, and in the area of fastening elements because linear or intermittent thermal bridges and leaks can increase the risk of heat losses, condensation and mould formation. Mistakes made in planning or construction Protection from moisture. Water must not be allowed to penetrate structures in and around closed facade surfaces such as plastered masonry , punctuated facades and partitioned exterior wall structures like glass facades.
Any water that does penetrate must be extracted in a controlled manner. The moisture content of materials sensitive to damp, such as certain insulating materials and timber, must also be kept low. We now know that mould can form even in the absence of visible condensate, resulting in critical surface temperatures being redefined in DIN The basic rule of construction in Central Europe is that the inside of a building should be more vapour-proof than the outside.
Condensate can form in multilayer glass facades when moist air inside cavities of the facade meets cold surfaces. The risk of this occurring can be reduced by improving the quality of insulation between exterior layers and ventilating the cavities .
The result is that the steamed-up glass surface hardly dries under cold weather conditions. This phenomenon will become increasingly common in future. Sun protection. Planners need to find a balanced relationship between the glazing percentage or type of glazing and the sun-shading system to provide a consistent overall solution.
This also applies to added components such as sunshading devices and anti-glare screens and to deflected daylight Fig. Sun protection systems The primary function of sun protection systems is to prevent overheating and ensure a comfortable interior climate. Solutions are required that ensure an adequate supply of daylight in the interior without overheating it. This can be achieved by blocking out direct sunshine as far as possible, while diffuse daylight can be transmitted into an interior as necessary to illuminate it.
Sun shading systems can be classified into fixed or moving systems. Fixed components are structural components that can project from an exterior wall, be freestanding or consist of fixed louvres see Fig.
One advantage of fixed systems is that they require little maintenance. Some solar radiation may, however, be blocked out, which can reduce light in the interior. Moving systems, in contrast, are almost ideal. Systems that do not completely block out direct sun may require appropriate anti-glare screens.
It is important to ensure that sun protection is attached outside the glazing. In windy locations in particular, stable construction of moveable sun protection systems is crucial in ensuring their protective function when there is both sunshine and wind. Glare protection. External interference should not be allowed to impair visual function and comfort.
A distinction is made between physiological glare, which directly impairs vision, and psychological glare, which can cause premature fatigue and adversely affect performance and well-being.
Direct glare is directly caused by a light source, while reflected glare is the result of reflections from light surfaces onto shiny surfaces. These demands are constant, even in the face of strong wind,. Anyone involved in planning and building facades in compliance with generally accepted rules will at some point need to make decisions on materials.
Case Studies of Building Pathology in Cultural Heritage
The Rotarian. Established in , The Rotarian is the official magazine of Rotary International and is circulated worldwide. Each issue contains feature articles, columns, and departments about, or of interest to, Rotarians. Bla i alle utgaver
Keywords: masonry buildings , earthquake effects , seismic retrofitting techniques , seismic performance. Keywords: adobe masonry buildings , earthquake effects , damages , seismic performance. Authors: A. Mirzaee , M.
Authors Thomas Herzog Prof. Rome Dr. Winfried Heusler Aspects of building physics and planning advice Prof. Michael Volz Timber Expert consultants for the edition: Prof. Gerhard Hausladen, Dipl. Reiner Letsch, Dr. Volker Wittwer. Research assistants Chair of Building Technology for the edition under the guidance of Prof. Bibliographic information published by the German National Library.
Top 125 healthcare architecture firms
Main entrance of the Brest State Technical University. Brest is the administrative center of the Brest region. Brest is an important industrial centre of Belarus. With half a hundred of industrial enterprises, plants and factories located in and around Brest, the town's industries produce computers, gas-stoves, carpets, tape-recorders, electrical appliances, electric light bulbs, textiles, knitted-wear, chemicals, agricultural machines, building materials and food products.
Photos: Rockford Construction. Images: HED. A rendering of an expanded Rosedale Center in Minnesota's Twin Cities, which when completed will include a medical office building. Image: Rosedale Center.
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Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is the premier public resource on scientific and technological developments that impact global security. Founded by Manhattan Project Scientists, the Bulletin's iconic "Doomsday Clock" stimulates solutions for a safer world. International Geophysical Year, , Antarctic regions. Antarctic research and the relevance of science.
Sound insulation calculation in the entire building
Однако одиночество не принесло ей успокоения. В голове у Сьюзан беспрестанно крутилась мысль о контактах Танкадо с Хейлом. Кто будет охранять охранников. - подумала. Quis custodiet ipsos custodes. Эти слова буквально преследовали. Она попыталась выбросить их из головы. Мысли ее вернулись к Дэвиду.
Человек сунул руку в карман и, вытащив пистолет, нацелил его Беккеру в голову. - El anillo. Внезапно Беккера охватило чувство, которого он никогда прежде не испытывал. Словно по сигналу, поданному инстинктом выживания, все мышцы его тела моментально напряглись. Он взмыл в воздух в тот момент, когда раздался выстрел, и упал прямо на Меган.
Но это теперь не имело никакого значения, мысль о смерти ее не пугала. Смерть остановит боль. Она будет опять рядом с Дэвидом. Шифровалка начала вибрировать, словно из ее глубин на поверхность рвалось сердитое морское чудовище.
Сквозь строй дважды отверг этот файл. Линейная мутация. И все-таки он пошел в обход. Интересно, о чем он .
Это был Джабба.
Нет, - хмуро сказал Стратмор. - Танкадо потребовал ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Да. Он потребовал, чтобы я публично, перед всем миром, рассказал о том, что у нас есть ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Джабба повернул голову к экрану ВР. Атакующие линии рвались вперед, они находились уже на волосок от пятой, и последней, стены, Последние минуты существования банка данных истекали.
Сьюзан отгородилась от царившего вокруг хаоса, снова и снова перечитывая послание Танкадо. PRIME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ELEMENTS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI ГЛАВНАЯ РАЗНИЦА МЕЖДУ ЭЛЕМЕНТАМИ, ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫМИ ЗА ХИРОСИМУ И НАГАСАКИ - Это даже не вопрос! - крикнул Бринкерхофф. - Какой же может быть ответ.
Дэвид посмотрел ей в глаза: - Ты выйдешь за меня замуж. У нее перехватило дыхание. Она посмотрела на него, потом на кольцо.