Units space equipment for the production of fiberglass and asbestos filaments
Reviewed: October 24th Published: January 23rd Fibre-reinforced polymer FRP , also Fibre-reinforced plastic , is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon, or aramid, although other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been sometimes used. The polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester or polyester thermosetting plastic, and phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use. FRPs are commonly used in the aerospace, automotive, marine, and construction industries.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Fiberglass Overview
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Chemical Hazard Sign - Asbestos
Fiberglass refers to a group of products made from individual glass fibers combined into a variety of forms. Glass fibers can be divided into two major groups according to their geometry: continuous fibers used in yarns and textiles, and the discontinuous short fibers used as batts, blankets, or boards for insulation and filtration. Fiberglass can be formed into yarn much like wool or cotton, and woven into fabric which is sometimes used for draperies.
Fiberglass textiles are commonly used as a reinforcement material for molded and laminated plastics. Fiberglass wool, a thick, fluffy material made from discontinuous fibers, is used for thermal insulation and sound absorption. It is commonly found in ship and submarine bulkheads and hulls; automobile engine compartments and body panel liners; in furnaces and air conditioning units; acoustical wall and ceiling panels; and architectural partitions.
Fiberglass can be tailored for specific applications such as Type E electrical , used as electrical insulation tape, textiles and reinforcement; Type C chemical , which has superior acid resistance, and Type T, for thermal insulation.
Though commercial use of glass fiber is relatively recent, artisans created glass strands for decorating goblets and vases during the Renaissance. A French physicist, Rene-Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur, produced textiles decorated with fine glass strands in , and British inventors duplicated the feat in A British silk weaver made a glass fabric in , and another inventor, Edward Libbey, exhibited a dress woven of glass at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
Glass wool, a fluffy mass of discontinuous fiber in random lengths, was first produced in Europe at the turn of the century, using a process that involved drawing fibers from rods horizontally to a revolving drum.
Several decades later, a spinning process was developed and patented. Glass fiber insulating material was manufactured in Germany during World War I. Research and development aimed at the industrial production of glass fibers progressed in the United States in the s, under the direction of two major companies, the Owens-Illinois Glass Company and Corning Glass Works.
These companies developed a fine, pliable, low-cost glass fiber by drawing molten glass through very fine orifices. In , these two companies merged to form Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. The basic raw materials for fiberglass products are a variety of natural minerals and manufactured chemicals. The major ingredients are silica sand, limestone, and soda ash. Other ingredients may include calcined alumina, borax, feldspar, nepheline syenite, magnesite, and kaolin clay, among others.
Silica sand is used as the glass former, and soda ash and limestone help primarily to lower the melting temperature. Other ingredients are used to improve certain properties, such as borax for chemical resistance. Waste glass, also called cullet, is also used as a raw material. The raw materials must be carefully weighed in exact quantities and thoroughly mixed together called batching before being melted into glass. Sizing is any coating applied to textile fibers in the forming operation, and may contain one or more components lubricants, binders, or coupling agents.
Coupling agents are used on strands that will be used for reinforcing plastics, to strengthen the bond to the reinforced material.
Sometimes a finishing operation is required to remove these coatings, or to add another coating. For plastic reinforcements, sizings may be removed with heat or chemicals and a coupling agent applied. For decorative applications, fabrics must be heat treated to remove sizings and to set the weave. Dye base coatings are then applied before dying or printing. During the production of fiberglass insulation, material is sampled at a number of locations in the process to maintain quality.
These locations include: the mixed batch being fed to the electric melter; molten glass from the bushing which feeds the fiberizer; glass fiber coming out of the fiberizer machine; and final cured product emerging from the end of the production line. The bulk glass and fiber samples are analyzed for chemical composition and the presence of flaws using sophisticated chemical analyzers and microscopes. Particle size distribution of the batch material is obtained by passing the material through a number of different sized sieves.
The final product is measured for thickness after packaging according to specifications. A change in thickness indicates that glass quality is below the standard.
Fiberglass insulation manufacturers also use a variety of standardized test procedures to measure, adjust, and optimize product acoustical resistance, sound absorption, and sound barrier performance. The acoustical properties can be controlled by adjusting such production variables as fiber diameter, bulk density, thickness, and binder content.
A similar approach is used to control thermal properties. The fiberglass industry faces some major challenges over the rest of the s and beyond. The number of producers of fiberglass insulation has increased due to American subsidiaries of foreign companies and improvements in productivity by U. This has resulted in excess capacity, which the current and perhaps future market cannot accommodate.
In addition to excess capacity, other insulation materials will compete. Rock wool has become widely used because of recent process and product improvements. Foam insulation is another alternative to fiberglass in residential walls and commercial roofs. Another competing material is cellulose, which is used in attic insulation. Because of the low demand for insulation due to a soft housing market, consumers are demanding lower prices.
This demand is also a result of the continued trend in consolidation of retailers and contractors. In response, the fiberglass insulation industry will have to continue to cut costs in two major areas: energy and environment. More efficient furnaces will have to be used that do not rely on only one source of energy. With landfills reaching maximum capacity, fiberglass manufacturers will have to achieve nearly zero output on solid waste without increasing costs.
This will require improving manufacturing processes to reduce waste for liquid and gas waste as well and reusing waste wherever possible. Such waste may require reprocessing and remelting before reusing as a raw material. Several manufacturers are already addressing these issues. Aubourg, P. Crall, J. Hadley, R. Kaverman, and D. ASM International, , pp.
McLellan, G. Glass Engineering Handbook. McGraw-Hill, Pfaender, H. Schott Guide To Glass. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Tooley, F. Hnat, J. Webb, R. Toggle navigation. Made How Volume 2 Fiberglass Fiberglass. Periodicals Hnat, J. Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur. Also read article about Fiberglass from Wikipedia. User Contributions: 1. Any leads would be great. Kaleb - barriers to entry into manuafacturing are relatively high.
Energy cost is high to operate the hot end of the process where the fiberglass is made. Unless you live in an area where electricity is cheap you will not be able to compete. Phylis - some people are allergic to fiberglass fibers however you can easily protect yourself by wearing protective gloves and a dust mask in areas where the fiberglass is being installed. There are no fumes - this material is fiber. Once the insulation is installed - should not be an issue.
Some fiberglass insulation has protective layer of film applied to it. Are there alternatives to fiberglass that are Eco-friendly and just as strong? Is fiberglass particles used in laundry detergent as optical brightness? Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic: Name:. E-mail: Show my email publicly.
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Safety in the Workplace With Fiberglass Dust
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website. This document assists building buyers, owners or inspectors who need to identify asbestos materials or probable-asbestos in buildings by simple visual inspection.
The third edition of Pathology of Asbestos-Associated Diseases builds on the success of the previous editions by fully updating knowledge on diagnostic and epidemiologic aspects and presenting important new insights derived from new epidemiologic studies and animal studies. Background information is first provided on the mineralogy of asbestos, occupational and environmental exposure, and asbestos bodies. The various diseases associated with asbestos exposure are then considered in turn, with detailed description and illustration of pathologic features as well as extensive discussion of etiology, epidemiology, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Further chapters are devoted to cytopathology, experimental models of disease, and analysis of tissue mineral fiber content.
Pathology of Asbestos-Associated Diseases
NCBI Bookshelf. Man-made Vitreous Fibres. Man-made vitreous fibre MMVF is a generic name used to describe an inorganic fibrous material manufactured primarily from glass, rock, minerals, slag and processed inorganic oxides. The MMVFs produced are non-crystalline glassy, vitreous, amorphous. In this monograph, the terms rock stone wool, slag wool and glass wool are used rather than mineral wool, whenever possible. Man-made vitreous fibres are manufactured by a variety of processes based on the attenuation of a thin stream of molten inorganic oxides at high temperatures. All commercially important MMVFs are silica-based and contain various amounts of other inorganic oxides. The non-silica components typically include, but are not limited to, oxides of alkaline earths, alkalis, aluminium, boron, iron and zirconium. These additional oxides may be constituents of the raw materials used to make the fibres, or they may be added to enhance the manufacturing process or the product performance.
Fiberglass refers to a group of products made from individual glass fibers combined into a variety of forms. Glass fibers can be divided into two major groups according to their geometry: continuous fibers used in yarns and textiles, and the discontinuous short fibers used as batts, blankets, or boards for insulation and filtration. Fiberglass can be formed into yarn much like wool or cotton, and woven into fabric which is sometimes used for draperies. Fiberglass textiles are commonly used as a reinforcement material for molded and laminated plastics. Fiberglass wool, a thick, fluffy material made from discontinuous fibers, is used for thermal insulation and sound absorption.
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website. This article series provides information about how to identify fiberglass insulation in buildings and fiberglass hazards and fiberglass insulation contamination issues in residential and light-commercial buildings. The fiberglass research literature is replete with studies indicating that there are no health hazards associated with airborne fiberglass particles, and with other studies reaching quite the opposite conclusion.
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Nomex is a flame-resistant meta - aramid material developed in the early s by DuPont and first marketed in Nomex and related aramid polymers are related to nylon , but have aromatic backbones, and hence are more rigid and more durable. Nomex is an example of a meta variant of the aramids Kevlar is a para aramid. Unlike Kevlar, Nomex strands cannot align during filament polymerization and has less strength: its ultimate tensile strength is MPa . However, it has excellent thermal, chemical, and radiation resistance for a polymer material.
Fiberglass, also known as glass wool or fibrous glass, contains tiny fibers made of glass and other materials. When workers sand, cut, chop, saw or trim Fiberglass, it produces dust that contains fibers. These fibers can come into contact with the skin and get into the eyes, putting workers at risk for serious health effects. Supervisors should ensure that workers know how to protect themselves from these risks. Large fiberglass fibers have the potential to irritate the eyes, skin and upper respiratory tract.
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