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February 19, 4 min read. What is it that makes a Sport Weight Linen 2 Ply so perfect for a lightweight summer sweater? How can I tell how durable my yarn is? Why can I machine wash some wool, and not others?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: BIOSYNTHETIC FIBERS: GOT MILK? MAKE YARN!
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- Bath Towel
- What Is Acrylic Yarn?
- All 2,493 US products targeted by China’s new 25% tariffs
- Carpet Glossary
- A review of the sustainable methods in imparting shrink resistance to wool fabrics
- The Ultimate Yarn Guide: Part 1
- Threading Your Way Through the Labeling Requirements Under the Textile and Wool Acts
Bath towels are woven pieces of fabric either cotton or cotton-polyester that are used to absorb moisture on the body after bathing. Bath towels are often sold in a set with face towels and wash cloths and are always the largest of the three towels.
Bath towels are generally woven with a loop or pile that is soft and absorbent and is thus used to wick the water away from the body. Special looms called dobby looms are used to make this cotton pile. Bath towels are generally of a single color but may be decorated with machine-sewn embroidery, woven in fancy jacquard patterns pre-determined computer program driven designs or even printed in stripes. Since towels are exposed to much water and are washed on hot-water wash settings more frequently than other textiles, printed towels may not retain their pattern very long.
Most towels have a two selvage edges or finished woven edges along the sides and are hemmed cut and sewn down at the top and bottom. Some toweling manufacturers produce the yarn used for the toweling, weave the towels, dye them, cut and sew hems, and ready them for distribution. Others purchase the yarn already spun from other wholesalers and only weave the toweling. Until the early nineteenth century, when the textile industry mechanized, bath toweling could be relatively expensive to purchase or time-consuming to create.
There is some question how important these sanitary linens were for the average person—after all, bathing was not nearly as universally popular years ago as it is today! Most nine-teenth century toweling that survives is, indeed, toweling probably used behind or on top of the washstand, the piece of furniture that held the wash basin and pitcher with water in the days before indoor plumbing.
Much of this toweling was hand-woven, plain-woven natural linen. Fancy ladies' magazines and mail order catalogs feature fancier jacquard-woven colored linen patterns particularly red and white but these were more likely to be hand and face cloths. It wasn't until the s that the more soft and absorbent terry cloth replaced the plain linen toweling. As the cotton industry mechanized in this country, toweling material could be purchased by the yard as well as in finished goods.
By the s, an American house-wife could go to the general store or order through the mail either woven, sewn, and hemmed Turkish toweling terry cloth or could purchase terry cloth by the 'y'ard, cut it to the appropriate bath towel size her family liked, and hem it herself.
A variety of toweling was available—diaper weaves, huck-abacks, "crash" toweling—primarily in cotton as linen was not commercially woven in this country in great quantity by the s.
Weaving factories began mass production of terry cloth towels by the end of the nine-teenth century and have been producing them in similar fashion ever since. Raw materials include cotton or cotton and polyester, depending on the composition of the towel in production. Some towel factories purchase the primary raw material, cotton, in lb kg bales and spin them with synthetics in order to get the type of yarn they need for production.
However, some factories purchase the yarn from a supplier. These yarn spools of cotton-polyester blend yarn is purchased in huge quantities in 7. A single spool of yarn unravels to 66, yd 60, m of thread. Yarn must be coated or sized in order for it to be woven more easily. One such industry coating contains PVA starch, urea, and wax. Bleaches are generally used to whiten a towel before dyeing it if it is to be dyed.
Again, these bleaches vary depending on the manufacturer, but may include as many as 10 ingredients some of them proprietary including hydrogen peroxide, a caustic defoamer, or if the towel is to remain white, an optical brightener to make the white look brighter.
Synthetic or chemical dyes, of complex composition, which make towels both colorfast and bright, may also be used. Most towels are not specially designed in complex patterns.
The vast majority is simple terry towels woven on dobby looms with loop piles, sewn edges at top and bottom. Sizes vary as do colors depending on the order. Increasingly, white or stock towels are sent to wholesalers or others to decorate with computer-driven embroidery or decorate with applique fabric or decoration. This occurs in a different location and is often done by another company. The filler yarn is programmed so that it is loosely laid into the woven fabric. When this loose filler is beaten or pressed into the fabric, the slack is pushed up becoming a little loop.
After being dyed, the towel is hemmed and cut into standardized sizes. Shuttles, which carry the filler threads, are truly shot across these large looms at top-speeds—these towel-making looms may have 18 shuttles fired across the warp from a firing cylinder.
One shuttle follows right behind the next. As soon as the one shuttle shoots across the warp threads, the shuttle drops down and is transported back to firing cylinder and is shot across again. A typical towel-weaving machine has shuttle insertions in a single minute—nearly six shuttles fired across each second. Thus, towels are woven very quickly on these large mechanized dobby looms. In one small towel-making factory, dozen bath towels can be made in one loom in a single week—and there are 50 looms in the factory.
Towels are rigorously checked for quality control throughout the production process. If yarn is purchased, it is randomly checked for weight and must be the standard established by the company lighter yarn spools indicate the yarn is thinner than desired and may not make as sturdy toweling. Bleach and dye vats are periodically checked for appropriate chemical constitution. During the weaving process, some companies pass the cloth over a lighted inspection table.
Here the weavers and quality inspectors monitor the towel for weaving imperfections. Slightly unevenly woven towels may be straightened out and touched up. But those that cannot may be labeled "seconds" or imperfect or completely rejected by the company. As in all aspects of the process, visual checks are a key to quality control—all involved in the process understand minimum standards and monitor the product at all times. Potentially harmful byproducts are often mixed in the water that is used to bleach, wash, and dye the towel fabric.
Particularly, the bleaching process includes ingredients peroxides and other caustics that cannot be discharged untreated into any water supply. Many toweling factories run their own water treatment plants to insure that the water the plant discharges meets minimum standards for pH, temperature, etc.
Spring and Summer Catalogue and Buyer's Guide. NY: Dover Publications, Inc. Tate, Blair. The Warp: A Weaving Reference. Ashville, NC: Lark Books, Fieldcrest Cannon.
Kannapolis, NC, Toggle navigation. Once the toweling is made, it is wound on an off-loom take-up reel. It is then transported to bleaching as huge rolls of fabric and put into a water bath with bleaching chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, caustic defoamers, and other proprietary ingredients. All toweling must be dyed pure white before it is dyed any color. Other Fieldcrest Cannon.
Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur. User Contributions: 1. Vijay Garg. With the upgrade of Technology , it is now possible to produce Polyester filament yarns with low dpf. Grace Spoor. Is terry the namesake of someone who named the towels terry cloth, where did the name come from? I need help. It doesn't matter what color towel I buy, after a few washings, the dye starts to fade in spots. I wash in cold water and use liquid detergent and I also use dryer sheets.
Can anyone tell me what I'm doing wrong? PS I live in a hard water area. Hello i want to know about towel making machineries used and second hand or new. Also i need info about yarns for towel. Neema Martin. Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic: Name:. E-mail: Show my email publicly. Human Verification:. Public Comment: characters. Send comment. Basket Beef Jerky.
What Is Acrylic Yarn?
Fibers used to reinforce composites are supplied directly by fiber manufacturers and indirectly by converters in a number of different forms, which vary depending on the application. Here's a guide to what's available. The automated FPP line left produces dry unidirectional carbon fiber patches that are precision-placed onto a 6-axis robotically articulated tool white arm at right by a 4-axis kinematic robot black armature in center. Cevotec imports digital files prepared for specialty kiteboards into its own software to design local reinforcements that will meet both the kiteboard geometry and manufacturing process requirements as well as achieve the desired customer-specified performance improvements. Source: Cevotec.
The textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries include establishments that process fiber into fabric and fabric into clothing and other textile products. While most apparel manufacturers worldwide rely on people to cut and sew pieces of fabric together, U. Because the apparel industry has moved mainly to other countries with cheaper labor costs, that which remains in the United States must be extremely labor efficient to compete effectively with foreign manufacturers. Goods and services.
All 2,493 US products targeted by China’s new 25% tariffs
It has been the largest market for Apple iPhones since Since the escalation of tariffs, though, China has stopped buying soybeans and lobsters , and Apple warned it would miss its expected Christmas holiday sales figures because of trade tensions. Skip to navigation Skip to content. From our Obsession Because China. Item HTS code Non-coniferous wood chips or wood pellets Sawdust, wood waste and debris, unbonded Other charcoal, whether or not agglomerated Softwood logs treated with preservatives Pinus koraiensis and Pinus sylvestris var. Item HTS code Rolled newsprint Sheets and other newsprint Other hand made paper and cardboard Photographic base paper Other uncoated paper and paper for writing, printing or similar purposes, weighing less than 40 grams per square metre. The board does not contain fibers obtained by mechanical or chemical-mechanical methods or contains the aforementioned fibers not exceed Weights of 40 grams and more per square meter, but not exceeding grams, in the form of writing, printing or Other uncoated paper and paperboard for similar purposes, excluding mechanical or chemical-mechanical methods The obtained fiber or the aforemen Weight per square metre of 40 grams and above, but not exceeding grams, in sheets, and unfolded Other writing, printing or class, weighing 40 g or more, but not exceeding g. Item HTS code Other processed cultured pearls Industrial diamonds, unprocessed or simply processed Other industrial diamonds Unprocessed or simply processed non-industrial diamonds Other non-industrial diamonds Unprocessed or semi-precious stones Other processed rubies, sapphires, emeralds Crystal Other gemstones or semi-precious stones processed by other Piezoelectric Quartz Unprocessed or reconstituted with other precious or semi-precious stones Industrial sapphire Other non-industrial synthetic other gems or semi-precious stones Natural or synthetic gemstone or semi-precious stone powder Non-flaky silver powder with an average particle size of less than 3 microns Unwrought silver with a purity of Item HTS code Non-driving bogies for railway or tramway vehicles Axle for railway or tramway vehicles Steering wheels and parts for railway or tramway vehicles Air brakes and parts for railway or tramway vehicles Hooks, other couplings, bumpers and their parts for railway or tramway vehicles Other parts for railway or tramway locomotives Other track fixtures, signalling, safety or traffic management equipment and parts 20 ft.
Polypropylene PP. Polyester PET. Burns to a hard black headM puffs white smoke; extinguishes. Burns to a round hard tan bead. Burns rapidly to a round hard bead and gives off a pungent odor.
Bath towels are woven pieces of fabric either cotton or cotton-polyester that are used to absorb moisture on the body after bathing. Bath towels are often sold in a set with face towels and wash cloths and are always the largest of the three towels. Bath towels are generally woven with a loop or pile that is soft and absorbent and is thus used to wick the water away from the body.
A review of the sustainable methods in imparting shrink resistance to wool fabrics
Skip navigation. Most textile and wool products must have a label listing the fiber content, the country of origin, and the identity of the manufacturer or another business responsible for marketing or handling the item. Federal labeling requirements for textile and wool products, enforced by the FTC, require that most of these products have a label listing the fiber content, country of origin and identity of the manufacturer or another business responsible for marketing or handling the item.
Wool fiber is a natural protein fiber, which is used for the manufacturing of apparels, and floorcoverings because of its excellent fire retardancy, stain-resistance, antistatic and odor control properties along with exceptional warmth and resilience. However, wool fiber has several serious demerits, such as garments made of wool fibers extensively shrink during their laundering. To overcome this problem, wool fibers, especially those are used in apparel, are frequently shrink-resist treated to make them machine-washable. A wide range of treatments including oxidative, enzymatic, radiation, polymeric coatings, sol-gel coatings, and plasma treatments have been investigated to make wool fiber shrink-resistant. In this review, the mechanisms of wool fiber shrinkage, the research carried out until recently to make wool fiber shrink-resistant, and the current status of the sustainable alternatives developed, have been compiled and presented. The various methods investigated have been critically discussed with their merits and demerits, shrink-resist performance, and their shrink-resistance mechanisms.
The Ultimate Yarn Guide: Part 1
The production of textile materials comprises a very large and complex global industry that utilises a diverse range of fibre types and creates a variety of textile products. As the great majority of such products are coloured, predominantly using aqueous dyeing processes, the coloration of textiles is a large-scale global business in which complex procedures are used to apply different types of dye to the various types of textile material. Physico-Chemical Aspects of Textile Coloration provides a comprehensive treatment of the physical chemistry involved in the dyeing of the major types of natural, man-made and synthetic fibres with the principal types of dye. The book covers:. The up-to-date text is supported by a large number of tables, figures and illustrations as well as footnotes and widespread use of references to published work.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Materials as a field is most commonly represented by ceramics, metals, and polymers.
Threading Your Way Through the Labeling Requirements Under the Textile and Wool Acts
A polyamide is a polymer containing monomers joined by peptide bonds. They can occur both naturally, examples being proteins , such as wool and silk , and can be made artificially, examples being Nylon , Kevlar and sodium poly aspartate. The amide link is produced from the condensation reaction of an amino group and a carboxylic acid or acid chloride group.
Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres , suitable for use in the production of textiles , sewing , crocheting , knitting , weaving , embroidery , or ropemaking. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Yarn can be made from a number of natural or synthetic fibers. Many types of yarn are made differently though.
Download PDF Version. A spinning system in which yarn is made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers with compressed air. The porosity, or the ease with which air passes through material. Air permeability determines such factors as the wind resistance of sailcloth, the air resistance of parachute cloth, and the efficiency of various types of air filtration media.
Menachem Lewin , Eli M. Second Edition provides entirely new coverage of topics such as vinyl fibers; mammalian fibers related to wool; cotton, jute, silk, and kenaf fibers; and acrylic fibers. Fiber Formation. Chemical Properties. Polyamide Fibers. Applications and Markets.
Maximizing customer value with innovative textile technology and a global trade network. Hyosung is one of the world's best manufacturers of nylon textile filament, is loved by customers around the world for its nylon fibers of outstanding quality and a variety of functions, all based on production know-how accumulated over 50 years. Capitalizing from its efforts to reduce energy, Hyosung has launched the world's first ever environmentally friendly recyclable nylon, 'MIPAN regen', and is leading the world to a better place through resource recycling.