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Units manufacturing finished cotton fabrics and piece goods

Units manufacturing finished cotton fabrics and piece goods

The textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries include establishments that process fiber into fabric and fabric into clothing and other textile products. While most apparel manufacturers worldwide rely on people to cut and sew pieces of fabric together, U. Because the apparel industry has moved mainly to other countries with cheaper labor costs, that which remains in the United States must be extremely labor efficient to compete effectively with foreign manufacturers. Goods and services.

Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to resolve Units manufacturing finished cotton fabrics and piece goods, but each case is unique.

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Textile manufacturing

Consumption is measured by the amount of raw cotton fibre purchased and used to manufacture textile materials. Worldwide cotton production is annually about 80 to 90 million bales The rest is produced by about 75 other countries.

Raw cotton is exported from about 57 countries and cotton textiles from about 65 countries. Many countries emphasize domestic production to reduce their reliance on imports. Yarn manufacturing is a sequence of processes that convert raw cotton fibres into yarn suitable for use in various end-products. A number of processes are required to obtain the clean, strong, uniform yarns required in modern textile markets. Beginning with a dense package of tangled fibres cotton bale containing varying amounts of non-lint materials and unusable fibre foreign matter, plant trash, motes and so on , continuous operations of opening, blending, mixing, cleaning, carding, drawing, roving and spinning are performed to transform the cotton fibres into yarn.

However, for the foreseeable future, the current conventional systems of blending, carding, drawing, roving and spinning will continue to be used. Only the cotton picking process seems clearly destined for elimination in the near future.

Yarn manufacturing produces yarns for various woven or knitted end-products e. Yarns are produced with different diameters and different weights per unit length. While the basic yarn manufacturing process has remained unchanged for a number of years, processing speeds, control technology and package sizes have increased.

Yarn properties and processing efficiency are related to the properties of the cotton fibres processed. End-use properties of the yarn are also a function of processing conditions. Typically, mills select bale mixes with the properties needed to produce yarn for a specific end-use. The number of bales used by different mills in each mix ranges from 6 or 12 to over Processing begins when the bales to be mixed are brought to the opening room, where bagging and ties are removed.

Layers of cotton are removed from the bales by hand and placed in feeders equipped with conveyors studded with spiked teeth, or entire bales are placed on platforms which move them back and forth under or over a plucking mechanism. The aim is to begin the sequential production process by converting the compacted layers of baled cotton into small, light, fluffy tufts that will facilitate the removal of foreign matter. This enhances opening and helps regulate the feeding rate.

The cleaning machines in mills perform the functions of opening and first-level cleaning. The card is the most important machine in the yarn manufacturing process. It performs second- and final-level cleaning functions in an overwhelming majority of cotton textile mills. The batt is removed from the screens in an even, flat sheet and then is rolled into a lap. However, labour requirements and the availability of automated handling systems with the potential for improved quality are contributing to the obsolescence of the picker.

The elimination of the picking process has been made possible by the installation of more efficient opening and cleaning equipment and chute-feed systems on the cards. The latter distribute opened and cleaned tufts of fibres to cards pneumatically through ducts. This action contributes to processing consistency and improved quality and reduces the number of workers required. A small number of mills produce combed yarn, the cleanest and most uniform cotton yarn. Combing provides more extensive cleaning than is provided by the card.

The purpose of combing is to remove short fibres, neps and trash so that the resulting sliver is very clean and lustrous. The comber is a complicated machine composed of grooved feed rolls and a cylinder that is partially covered with needles to comb out short fibres see figure 3. Drawing is the first process in yarn manufacturing that employs roller drafting. In drawing, practically all draft results from the action of rollers.

Containers of sliver from the carding process are staked in the creel of the drawing frame. Drafting occurs when a sliver is fed into a system of paired rollers moving at different speeds. Drawing straightens the fibres in the sliver by drafting to make more of the fibres parallel to the axis of the sliver.

Parallelization is necessary to obtain the properties desired when the fibres are subsequently twisted into yarn. Drawing also produces a sliver that is more uniform in weight per unit of length and helps to achieve greater blending capabilities. The fibres that are produced by the final drawing process, called finisher drawing, are nearly straight and parallel to the axis of the sliver.

Weight per unit length of a finisher-drawing sliver is too high to permit drafting into yarn on conventional ring-spinning systems. The roving process reduces the weight of the sliver to a suitable size for spinning into yarn and inserting twist, which maintains the integrity of the draft strands. Cans of slivers from finisher drawing or combing are placed in the creel, and individual slivers are fed through two sets of rollers, the second of which rotates faster, thus reducing the size of the sliver from about 2.

Spinning is the single most costly step in converting cotton fibres to yarn. The amount of twist is proportional to the strength of the yarn. The ratio of the length to the length fed can vary on the order of 10 to Bobbins of roving are placed onto holders that allow the roving to feed freely into the drafting roller of the ring-spinning frame.

The spindle holding this bobbin rotates at high speed, causing the yarn to balloon as twist is imparted. In the modern production of heavier or coarse yarns, open-end spinning is replacing ring spinning. A sliver of fibres is fed into a high-speed rotor. Here the centrifugal force converts the fibres into yarns.

There is no need for the bobbin, and the yarn is taken up on the package required by the next step in the process. Considerable research and development efforts are being devoted to radical new methods of yarn production. A number of new spinning systems currently under development may revolutionize yarn manufacturing and could cause changes in the relative importance of fibre properties as they are now perceived.

In general, four of the different approaches used in the new systems appear practical for use on cotton. Core-spun systems are currently in use to produce a variety of specialty yarns and sewing threads. Twistless yarns have been produced commercially on a limited basis by a system that bonds the fibres together with a polyvinyl alcohol or some other bonding agent. The twistless yarn system offers potentially high production rates and very uniform yarns.

Knit and other apparel fabrics from twistless yarn have excellent appearance. In air-vortex spinning, currently under study by several machinery manufacturers, drawing sliver is presented to an opening roller, similar to rotor spinning.

Air-vortex spinning is capable of very high production speeds, but prototype models are particularly sensitive to fibre length variations and foreign matter content such as trash particles.

Once the yarn is spun, the manufacturers must prepare a correct package. The type of package depends on whether the yarn will be used for weaving or knitting. Winding, spooling, twisting and quilling are considered preparatory steps for weaving and knitting yarn. In general, the product of spooling will be used as warp yarns the yarns that run lengthwise in woven fabric and the product of winding will be used as filling yarns , or weft yarns the yarns that run across the fabric.

The products from open-end spinning by-pass these steps and are packaged for either the filling or warp. Twisting produces ply yarns, where two or more yarns are twisted together before further processing.

In the quilling process yarn is wound onto small bobbins, small enough to fit inside the shuttle of a box loom.

Sometimes the quilling process takes place at the loom. In modern textile mills where control of dust is important, the handling of waste is given greater emphasis.

Here it was accumulated until there was enough of one type to make a bale. In the present state of the art, central vacuum systems automatically return waste from opening, picking, carding, drawing and roving.

The central vacuum system is used for cleaning of machinery, automatically collecting waste from under machinery such as fly and motes from carding, and for returning unusable floor sweeps and wastes from filter condensers.

The classical baler is a vertical upstroke press which still forms a typical kg bale. In modern wastehouse technology, wastes are accumulated from the central vacuum system in a receiving tank which feeds a horizontal bale press.

The various waste products of the yarn manufacturing industry can be recycled or reused by other industries. For example, spinning can be used in the waste spinning industry to make mop yarns, garnetting can be used in the cotton batting industry to make batting for mattresses or upholstered furniture. Accidents may occur on all types of cotton textile machinery, though the frequency rate is not high.

Effective guarding of the multiplicity of moving parts presents many problems and needs constant attention. Training of operators in safe practices is also essential, in particular to avoid attempting repairs while the machinery is in motion, the cause of many of the accidents. Each piece of machinery may have sources of energy electrical, mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, inertial and so on that need to be controlled before any repair or maintenance work is attempted. The facility should identify energy sources, provide necessary equipment and train personnel to ensure that all hazardous energy sources are turned off while working on equipment.

Inhalation of the dust generated where cotton fibre is converted into yarn and fabric has been shown to cause an occupational lung disease, byssinosis, in a small number of textile workers. It usually takes 15 to 20 years of exposure to higher levels of dust above 0. The dust, an airborne particulate released into the atmosphere as cotton is handled or processed, is a heterogeneous, complex mixture of botanical trash, soil and microbiological material i.

The aetiological agent and pathogenesis of byssinosis are not known. Cotton plant trash associated with the fibre and the endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria on the fibre and plant trash are thought to be the cause or to contain the causative agent.

The cotton fibre itself, which is mainly cellulose, is not the cause, since cellulose is an inert dust that does not cause respiratory disease. Appropriate engineering controls in cotton textile processing areas see figure 4 along with work practices, medical surveillance and PPE can, for the most part, eliminate the byssinosis. A mild water washing of cotton by batch kier washing systems and continuous batt systems reduces the residual level of endotoxin in both lint and airborne dust to levels below those associated with the acute reduction in pulmonary function as measured by the 1-second forced expiratory volume.

Noise can be a problem in some processes in yarn manufacturing, but in a few modern textile mills the levels are below 90 dBA, which is the US standard but which exceeds noise exposure standards in many countries. Thanks to the abatement efforts of machinery manufacturers and industrial noise engineers, noise levels are continuing to decrease as machinery speeds increase. The solution for high noise levels is the introduction of more modern, quieter equipment.

In the United States, a hearing conservation programme is required when noise levels exceed 85 dBA; this would include noise-level monitoring, audiometric testing and making hearing protection available to all employees when noise levels cannot be engineered below 90 dBA. Since spinning sometimes requires high temperatures and artificial humidificaton of the air, careful monitoring attention is always necessary to ensure that permissible limits are not exceeded.

Well designed and maintained air-conditioning plants are increasingly used in place of more primitive methods of temperature and humidity regulation. Many of the more modern textile yarn manufacturing mills find it useful to have some type of occupational safety and health management system in place to control the workplace hazards that workers may encounter.

When a safety and health management system is used, it should be flexible and adaptable enough to allow the mill to tailor it to its own needs.

Dyeing and printing

Superior quality knitted and woven fabric. Read More. A range of textiles for homes including lining bed linen. Premium quality yarns in different counts.

The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain. Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within the text and consultation of external sources. More detail can be found at the end of the book.

Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth.

How is fabric created?

Antex Knitting Mills is a vertical knitting, dyeing, printing and finishing company established in Los Angeles in The company produces approximately 1. Its traditional business is to provide fashionable knitted fabrics to the junior, contemporary, and children's markets. The Antex knitting department consists of high-speed, multi-feed, state-of-the-art machines. The equipment, ranging from 14 to 38 cut machines, provides the capabilities to produce a wide range of fabrics. Address: S. Broadway Pl. They make wool worsted and worsted-blend fabrics, and waterproof synthetics for the apparel market. In later , they had been bought by W. Cariff Engineered Fabrics Corporation : they are a multisite, manufacturing company engaged in the Design, Manufacture, Marketing and Distribution of Engineered, Circular- Knitted fabrics for industrial and medical product applications throughout the world.


The term textile industry from the Latin texere, to weave was originally applied to the weaving of fabrics from fibres, but now it includes a broad range of other processes such as knitting, tufting, felting and so on. It has also been extended to include the making of yarn from natural or synthetic fibres as well as the finishing and dyeing of fabrics. In prehistoric eras, animal hair, plants and seeds were used to make fibres. Silk was introduced in China around BC, and in the middle of the 18th century AD, the first synthetic fibres were created. Silk is the only natural fibre formed in filaments which can be twisted together to make yarn.

Representatives of some 20 leading textile-producing countries, meeting at Washington, April 2, for the first World Textile Conference, will seek to lay the basis for future stabilization of the textile industry through international agreements for regulation of labor conditions. While the conference, which is sponsored by the International Labor Organization, will not itself have power to propose labor treaties to governments, it is expected to recommend adoption by the International Labor Conference at Geneva in June of a draft convention for a hour week in the world textile industry.

Technical specifications. Specialty Textile Services is — and will always remain — exclusively devoted to serving the needs of world-class restaurants and resorts. Subscribe to our textile mail art project THEME: Artists from around the world are invited to submit a piece of original artwork based upon the theme of textiles. Manager Vickie Long handles our special orders on a daily basis and looks forward to helping you throughout this process!

Home Textile Companies

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See, which brands obtain and sell their products. Imagine you could identify manufacturers based on their proven specialization and their former customers. Learn how to find your most suitable manufacturers for textile within minutes! This list is based on verified inside information about suppliers worldwide and can not be falsified. The largest one is Wadding; other articles thereof, of cotton Hove over the chart to see the other ones:.

Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries

Dyeing and printing are processes employed in the conversion of raw textile fibres into finished goods that add much to the appearance of textile fabrics. Most forms of textile materials can be dyed at almost any stage. Quality woollen goods are frequently dyed in the form of loose fibre , but top dyeing or cheese dyeing is favoured in treating worsteds. Manufacturers prefer piece dyeing, which allows stocking of white goods, reducing the risk of being overstocked with cloth dyed in colours that have not been ordered. The dye used depends on the type of material and the specific requirements to be met.

The Manufacturing Process of Fabric - There are three basic steps in the Spinning can be done by hand, but this process is quite tedious and time consuming. bring improved conditions through product boycotts, letter writing campaigns.

Consumption is measured by the amount of raw cotton fibre purchased and used to manufacture textile materials. Worldwide cotton production is annually about 80 to 90 million bales The rest is produced by about 75 other countries. Raw cotton is exported from about 57 countries and cotton textiles from about 65 countries.


The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn , cloth and clothing. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry. It's outputs are- Denim ,cotton cloth etc. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre.

Textile industry

There are three basic steps required for fabric production. The first step in creating fabric is yarn production. Here, the raw materials that have been harvested and processed are transformed from raw fibers into yarn and threads. This is done by spinning the fibers.

Он не сомневался в своей победе, не зная, что опоздал. Я всегда добиваюсь своей цели, - подумал Стратмор.

Он старался двигаться быстрее, знал, что где-то позади идет человек с пистолетом. Беккер смешался с толпой прихожан и шел с низко опущенной головой. Собор был уже совсем рядом, он это чувствовал. Толпа стала еще плотнее, а улица шире.

Здесь, в командном центре, Джабба выше самого Господа Бога, а компьютерные проблемы не считаются со служебной иерархией. - Это не вирус? - с надеждой в голосе воскликнул Бринкерхофф. Джабба презрительно хмыкнул. - У вирусов есть линии размножения, приятель.

Тут ничего такого. Сьюзан с трудом воспринимала происходящее.

Внезапно домохозяйки штата Миннесота начали жаловаться компаниям Америка онлайн и Вундеркинд, что АНБ, возможно, читает их электронную почту, - хотя агентству, конечно, не было дела до рецептов приготовления сладкого картофеля.

Провал Стратмора дорого стоил агентству, и Мидж чувствовала свою вину - не потому, что могла бы предвидеть неудачу коммандера, а потому, что эти действия были предприняты за спиной директора Фонтейна, а Мидж платили именно за то, чтобы она эту спину прикрывала. Директор старался в такие дела не вмешиваться, и это делало его уязвимым, а Мидж постоянно нервничала по этому поводу.

Но директор давным-давно взял за правило умывать руки, позволяя своим умным сотрудникам заниматься своим делом, - именно так он вел себя по отношению к Тревору Стратмору.

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  1. Maura

    Precisely in the purpose :)