Units manufacturing equipment for the glass, porcelain, earthenware and cable industries
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Table of Contents
Hellerstein, Joel Bender, John G. Hadley and Charles M. Typical body constituents 2. Manufacturing processes 3. Selected chemical additives 4.
Refractory usage by industry in the USA 5. Interestingly, not only do most of these sectors have roots in antiquity, but they also share a number of common general processes. For example, all are fundamentally based on the use of naturally occurring raw materials in powder or fine particulate form which are transformed by heat into the desired products.
Therefore, despite the range of processes and products encompassed in this group, these common processes allow a common overview of potential health hazards associated with these industries. Since the various manufacturing sectors are composed of both small, fragmented segments e. There are common safety and health hazards encountered in manufacturing of products in these business sectors. The hazards and control measures are discussed in other sections of the Encyclopaedia.
Process-specific hazards are discussed in the individual sections of this chapter. Most of the industrial manufacturing processes receive dry solid raw materials in bulk form or individual bags. Bulk solid raw materials are unloaded from hopper rail cars or over-the-road trucks into bins, hoppers or mixers by gravity, pneumatic transfer lines, screw conveyors, bucket conveyors or other mechanical transfer.
Pallets of bagged raw materials 20 to 50 kg or large bulk fabric bag containers 0. Individual bags or raw materials are removed from pallets manually or with powered lift assists. Bagged raw materials are typically charged into a bag dumping station or directly into storage hoppers or scale hoppers.
Potential safety and health hazards associated with the solid raw material unloading, handling and transfer processes include:. Manufacturing products in these business sectors involves drying, melting or firing processes in kilns or furnaces.
Potential hazards presented from firing or melting processes include:. Material-handling, fabrication and packaging processes differ to a large extent in this business sector, as do the size, shape and weights of products.
The high density of materials in this sector or bulky configurations present common material-handling hazards. Manual lifting and material handling in production, fabrication, packaging and warehousing in this industry accounts for many disabling injuries.
Injury reduction efforts are focusing on reducing manual lifting and material handling. For example, innovative packaging designs, robotics for stacking and palletizing finished products, and automatic guided transport vehicles for warehousing are starting to be used in select parts of this business sector to eliminate manual material handling and associated injuries.
Use of conveyors, manned lift assists e. The use of robotics to eliminate manual material handling is playing a major role in prevention of ergonomic injuries. Robotics has reduced ergonomic stresses and severe laceration injuries that have been historically associated with material handling e. However, increased utilization of robotics and process automation introduces moving machinery and electric power hazards, which transforms the types of hazards and also transfers risks to other workers from production to maintenance workers.
Proper designs of electronic controls and logic sequencing, machine guards, total energy lockout practices and establishing safe operating and maintenance procedures are fundamental ways to control injuries to maintenance and production workers. Numerous potential health and safety hazards are encountered during periodic major rebuilds or cold repairs to furnaces or kilns. A wide range of hazards associated with construction activities may be encountered. Examples include: ergonomic hazards with material handling e.
Obsidian, for instance, is a naturally occurring combination of oxides fused by intense volcanic heat and vitrified made into a glass by rapid air cooling. Its opaque, black colour comes from the relatively high amounts of iron oxide it contains. Its chemical durability and hardness compare favourably with many commercial glasses. Glass technology has evolved for 6, years, and some modern principles date back to ancient times. The origin of the first synthetic glasses is lost in antiquity and legend.
Faience was made by the Egyptians, who molded figurines from sand SiO 2 , the most popular glass-forming oxide. The copper oxide gave the article an appealing blue colour. A most important development in glass technology was the use of a blow pipe see figure 5 , which was first used in approximately years BC. From then onwards, there was a rapid development in the technique of manufacturing glass. The first glass was coloured because of the presence of various impurities such as oxides of iron and chromium.
Virtually colourless glass was first made some 1, years ago. At that time glass manufacturing was developing in Rome, and from there it moved to many other countries in Europe. Many glass works were built in Venice, and an important development took place there. In the 13th century, many of the glass plants were moved from Venice to a nearby island, Murano.
Murano is still a centre for the production of hand-made glass in Italy. By the 16th century, glass was made all over Europe. Now Bohemian glass from the Czech Republic is well known for its beauty and glass plants in the United Kingdom and Ireland produce high-quality lead crystal glass tableware. Sweden is another country that is home to artistic glass crystalware production. In North America the first manufacturing establishment of any sort was a glass factory.
English settlers started to produce glass at the beginning of the 17th century at Jamestown, Virginia. Today glass is manufactured in most countries all over the world. Many products of glass are made in fully automatic processing lines. Although glass is one of the oldest materials, its properties are unique and not yet fully understood. The glass industry today is made up of several major market segments, which include the flat glass market, the consumer houseware market, the glass containers market, the optical glass industry and the scientific glassware market segment.
The optical and scientific glass markets tend to be very ordered and are dominated by one or two suppliers in most countries. These markets are also much lower in volume than the consumer-based markets. Each of these markets has developed over the years by innovations in specific glass technology or manufacturing advancements.
The container industry, for example, was driven by the development of high-speed bottle-making machines developed in the early s. The flat glass industry was significantly advanced by the development of the float glass process in the early s.
Both of these segments are multi-billion-dollar businesses worldwide today. Depending upon the specific category, a variety of other materials compete for market share, including ceramics, metals and plastics. Glass is an inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. Glass is typically hard and brittle and has a conchoidal fracture. Glass may be manufactured to be coloured, translucent or opaque by varying the dissolved amorphous or crystalline materials that are present.
When glass is cooled from the hot molten state, it gradually increases in viscosity without crystallization over a wide temperature range, until it assumes its characteristic hard, brittle form. Cooling is controlled to prevent crystallization, or high strain. While any compound which has these physical properties is theoretically a glass, most commercial glasses fall into three main types and have a wide range of chemical compositions. A commercial glass batch consists of a mixture of several ingredients.
However, the largest fraction of the batch is made up of from 4 to 6 ingredients, chosen from such materials as sand, limestone, dolomite, soda ash, borax, boric acid, feldspathic materials, lead and barium compounds. The remainder of the batch consists of several additional ingredients, chosen from a group of some 15 to 20 materials commonly referred to as minor ingredients.
These latter additions are added with a view to providing some specific function or quality, such as colour, which is to be realized during the glass preparation process. Figure 6 illustrates the basic principles of glass manufacture. The raw materials are weighed, mixed and, after the addition of broken glass cullet , taken to the furnace for melting. Small pots of up to 2 tonnes capacity are still used for the melting of glass for hand-blown crystalware and special glasses required in small quantity.
Several pots are heated together in a combustion chamber. In most modern manufacture, melting takes place in large regenerative, recuperative or electric furnaces built of refractory material and heated by oil, natural gas or electricity.
Electric boosting and cold top electric melting were commercialized and became extensively utilized globally in the late s and s. The driving force behind cold top electric melting was emission control, while electric boosting was generally used in order to improve glass quality and to increase throughput. The most significant economic factors concerning the use of electricity for glass furnace melting are related to fossil fuel costs, the availability of various fuels, electricity costs, capital costs for equipment and so on.
However, in many instances the prime reason for the use of electric melting or boosting is environmental control. Various locations worldwide either already have or are expected soon to have environmental regulations that strictly restrict the discharge of various oxides or particulate matter in general.
Thus, manufacturers in many locations face the possibility of either having to reduce glass melting throughputs, install baghouses or precipitators in order to handle waste flue gases or modify the melting process and include electric melting or boost. The alternatives to such modification may in some cases be plant shutdowns. In addition, all types of glass are subjected to further controlled cooling annealing in a special oven or lehr. Subsequent processing will depend on the type of manufacturing process.
Automatic blowing is used on machines for bottle and lamp bulb production in addition to traditional hand-blown glass. Simple shapes, such as in insulators, glass bricks, lens blanks and so on, are pressed rather than blown. Some manufacturing processes use a combination of mechanical blowing and pressing. Wired and figured glass is rolled. Sheet glass is drawn from the furnace by a vertical process which gives it a fire-finished surface.
Owing to the combined effects of drawing and gravity, some minor distortion is inevitable. Plate glass passes through water-cooled rollers onto an annealing lehr. It is free from distortion. Surface damage can be removed by grinding and polishing after fabrication. This process has largely been replaced by the float glass process, which was introduced in recent years see figure 7.
In cases where these groupings correspond with major groups, the major group heading is also in italics. The assembly of products from component parts is considered to be Manufacturing, except in cases where the activity is appropriately classified under Construction. The assembly and installation of machinery and equipment in mining, manufacturing, commercial and other business establishments is classified under the same group of Manufacturing as the manufacture of the item installed.
Food packaging technology is primarily concerned with packaging activities regarding protection of food products from biological, physical or chemical agents. With the growth of modern civilization, people are getting more concerned with hygiene and quality of the food. As a result of that, food packaging is gradually setting up its stand to contend with other industries. The importance of food packaging hardly needs emphasizing since only a handful of foods are sold in an unpackaged state.
BULK HANDLING EQUIPMENT & SYSTEMS
Microstructure of new porcelain insulators from two manufacturers shows large quality difference, with micro-cracks and interconnected pores evident in insulator at bottom. The same is for annealed glass. Utilize our website to review and source ceramic insulator manufactures with our easy-to-use features which allow you to locate ceramic insulator companies that will design, engineer, and manufacture ceramic insulators for your exact specifications. J S Group is one of the largest Porcelain insulator manufacturers, ceramic insulator manufacturer, porcelain insulator supplier, ceramic insulator supplier, ceramic insulator exporter, porcelain insulator exporter, ceramic insulator manufacturers india, porcelain insulator manufacturers india, porcelain insulators. Get porcelain insulators online at best price. Service Center Support; Remanufacturing. Manufacturer Part Number WP6.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field. This contrasts with other materials, semiconductors and conductors , which conduct electric current more easily. The property that distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity ; insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors or conductors. The most common examples are non-metals. A perfect insulator does not exist because even insulators contain small numbers of mobile charges charge carriers which can carry current.
Pagini selectate Pagina 5. Pagina Air and Water Purification and Pollution Control. Automotive including Diagnostic Servicing and Safety Equipment.
The term spices and condiments applies to such natural plant or vegetable products and mixtures thereof, used in whole or ground form, mainly for imparting flavor, aroma and piquancy to foods and also for seasoning of foods beverages like soups. The great mystery and beauty of spices is their use, blending and ability to change and enhance the character of food. Spices and condiments have a special significance in various ways in human life because of its specific flavours, taste, and aroma. Spices and condiments play an important role in the national economies of several spice producing, importing and exporting countries.
Bakery Products. Jaggery making. Mineral Based Industry. Polymer And Chemical Based Industry. Agriculture servicing for sprayers. Negative List of Activities:.
Белокурая девушка смотрела на него недоверчиво. - Вы это сделаете? - выдавила она, и глаза ее засветились надеждой. - Вы купите мне билет домой. О Боже, я вам так благодарна. Беккер растерялся. Очевидно, он ошибался.
Она съежилась от этого прикосновения. Он опустил руку и отвернулся, а повернувшись к ней снова, увидел, что она смотрит куда-то поверх его плеча, на стену. Там, в темноте, ярко сияла клавиатура. Стратмор проследил за ее взглядом и нахмурился Он надеялся, что Сьюзан не заметит эту контрольную панель.
Этим я и занимался сегодня весь день - считывал тексты с его терминала, чтобы быть наготове, когда он сделает первый шаг, чтобы вмонтировать этот чертов черный ход.
Вот почему я скачал на свой компьютер его электронную почту. Как доказательство, что он отслеживал все связанное с Цифровой крепостью. Я собирался передать всю эту информацию в прессу.
Беккер вильнул в сторону, и тут же боковое зеркало превратилось в осколки. Он почувствовал, как этот удар передался на руль, и плотнее прижался к мотоциклу. Боже всевышний. Похоже, мне не уйти.
У меня есть кое-что для. Она зажмурилась.
Не появится. - Но вы же позвонили… Стратмор позволил себе наконец засмеяться. - Трюк, старый как мир. Никуда я не звонил.
Ни он, ни Сьюзан не услышали тихих шагов в направлении Третьего узла. ГЛАВА 60 По зеркальному коридору Двухцветный отправился с наружной террасы в танцевальный зал. Остановившись, чтобы посмотреть на свое отражение в зеркале, он почувствовал, что за спиной у него возникла какая-то фигура. Он повернулся, но было уже поздно. Чьи-то стальные руки прижали его лицо к стеклу. Панк попытался высвободиться и повернуться.
Странное начало. Он постарался выкинуть этот эпизод из головы. Если повезет, он успеет вернуться и все же съездить с Сьюзан в их любимый Стоун-Мэнор.