Units manufacturing equipment for ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy
For the treatment of IBA incinerator bottom ash from waste-to-energy plants, NM Heilig is your partner to separate the non-ferrous metal mix into an aluminum fraction, a heavy metal fraction, and a residue waste stream. We offer our expertise in non ferrous metals recycling and provide turnkey pre-sorting installations in combination with the specialized knowledge of our sister company Recco Non Ferro Metals. We invite you to contact us and we will provide you with more information or a quotation. NM Heilig designs, develops, and delivers bulk material handling and recycling equipment.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Introduction to Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals.
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ALUMINIUM AND NON-FERROUS METALS
The iron and steel industry and the non-ferrous metal industry are highly material and energy intensive industries. Considerable amounts of the mass input become outputs in the form of releases to air and residues. The most relevant emissions are those to air. Ores and concentrates contain quantities of metals other than the prime target metal, and processes are designed to obtain pure target metal and recover other valuable metals as well.
These other metals tend to concentrate in the residues from the process, and in turn, these residues form the raw material for other metal recovery processes. Lastly, filter dusts can be recycled within the same plant or used for the recovery of other metals at other non-ferrous metal installations, by a third party or for other applications. Primary metallurgical processes are understood to be those aimed at obtaining metals such as iron, copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, etc.
Secondary metallurgical processes utilize scrap metals, often coated with plastics, paints, used batteries for lead productions , oils, etc.
Table II. With relevance to the provisions of Article 5, sources in these categories can be classified as follows:.
An example of elaborating a source inventory and release estimate for this source group is included in the example inventory 3. Sinter plants are associated with iron manufacture, often in integrated iron and steel mills. The sintering process is a pre-treatment step in the production of iron where fine particles of metal ores are agglomerated by combustion.
Waste gases are usually treated by dust removal in a cyclone, electrostatic precipitator, wet scrubber or fabric filter. Besides input-related measures, disruptions to flame front propagation, i. Revised or newly added emission factors are highlighted in red. Emission factors for other unintentional POPs are listed in Annex Detailed information on how default emission factors have been derived can also be found in Annex Class 1 includes plants with high use of waste, including cutting oils or other chlorinated contaminants, and limited process control and no or limited air pollution control system.
Class 2 should be applied for those plants that show good combustion control and have little use of waste, in particular cutting oils.
Very low technology sintering plants may have higher emissions. Any plants found with poor combustion controls and very limited air pollution control systems should be noted for future examination. Coke is produced from hard coal or brown coal by carbonization heating under vacuum. Coke is removed and quenched with water. The major use of coke is in the iron and steel industry.
No data are available to estimate releases from the production of charcoal from wood. This process can be carried out in many small units, which taken together may represent a considerable production.
For initial estimates of emissions, the emission factors given in this section for simple plants should be applied class 1. Class 1 should be applied to facilities where no dust removal device is in use. Class 2 should be used for plants using technology such as an afterburner and dust removal equipment.
The iron and steel industry is a highly material intensive industry with raw materials such as ores, pellets, scrap, coal, lime, limestone in some cases also heavy oil and plastics and additives and auxiliaries. It is also highly energy-intensive. More than half of the mass input becomes outputs in the form of releases to air and solid wastes or by-products. The most relevant emissions are those to air, with the emissions from sinter plants dominating the overall emissions for most pollutants see source category 2a.
In this section, all processes used in the manufacture of iron and steel are covered. For the purpose of the Toolkit, a categorization can be done according to the type of input material: blast furnaces BF are used only for the production of pig iron and are fed with iron ores from either sintering plants or pelletizing plants.
Blast furnaces do not utilize scrap. The hot-dip galvanizing process is included in this section since its objective is to protect steel from corrosion. Five types of furnaces are commonly used to melt metals in foundries: cupola, electric arc, induction, reverberatory, and crucible.
Class 1 includes all iron and steel making processes such as electric arc furnaces and open hearth furnaces , except basic oxygen furnaces and blast furnaces, using dirty scrap containing cutting oils or plastic materials and plants with scrap preheating and relatively poor controls; Class 2 includes all iron and steel making processes such as electric arc furnaces and open hearth furnaces , except basic oxygen furnaces and blast furnaces, using dirty scrap or clean scrap or virgin iron that are fitted with some after-burners and fabric filters for gas cleaning; Class 3 includes electric arc furnaces using dirty scrap or clean scrap or virgin iron and efficient gas cleaning with secondary combustion and fabric filters sometimes in combination with a rapid water quench , and basic oxygen furnaces; Class 4 should be used for blast furnaces with air pollution control systems.
Class 1 includes cold air cupolas or hot air cupola or rotary drum furnaces without fabric filters or equivalent for gas cleaning; Class 2 includes rotary drum furnaces with fabric filters or wet scrubbers; Class 3 includes cold air cupolas with fabric filters or wet scrubbers; Class 4 includes hot air cupolas and induction furnaces fitted with fabric filters or wet scrubbers.
Class 1 includes facilities without air pollution control systems; Class 2 includes facilities with good air pollution control systems but without a degreasing step; Class 3 includes facilities with both air pollution control systems and a degreasing step. Primary copper may be produced by two different technologies depending on the type of minerals treated, either oxides or sulfides, and from primary concentrates and other materials either by pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical routes BREF Hydrometallurgical methods are applied to treat oxidized minerals, i.
Typically, sulfurized minerals are treated by the pyrometallurgical route. Sulphidic minerals are first treated in a concentration plant, operated at room temperature, and then the concentrates are pyrometallurgically refined in primary copper smelters. The concentrates to be smelted consist basically of copper and iron sulfides and are low in chlorine ppm.
The stages involved are roasting, smelting, converting, refining, and electrorefining. Secondary copper is produced by pyrometallurgical processes and is obtained from scrap or other copper-bearing residues such as slags and ashes. Since used copper can be recycled without loss of quality, secondary copper production is an important sector. However, in the absence of measured data, there will be no default emission factor provided for this class.
Class 1 should be applied to thermal processing of mixed materials where furnaces are equipped with simple fabric filters, no or less effective air pollution control systems. Class 2 will be used where thermal processing of scrap copper materials is carried out in furnaces that are well controlled and fitted, with afterburners and fabric filters.
The scrap should undergo some sorting and classification prior to processing to minimize contaminants. Class 4 addresses the smelting and casting of copper and copper alloys.
Class 5 should be taken for primary Cu, well controlled plants with some secondary feed materials. Class 6 includes primary copper smelters that use clean raw materials and use either the base smelting process or the flash smelting. The releases from primary copper smelters that recycled secondary materials such as copper scrap or other residues can be estimated by applying the emission factor for class 5.
Aluminum Al can be produced from aluminum ore, most commonly bauxite primary production , or from scrap secondary production. In primary aluminum production, the mined aluminum ore e.
The use of pre-baked anodes represents the most modern process. Primary aluminum production is generally thought not to be a significant source of unintentionally produced POPs. Class 1 should be used for plants with simple or no dust removal equipment. Class 2 should be used for plants that have scrap pre-treatment, afterburners and dust control e. Class 3 should be used where high efficiency controls are in place consisting of scrap cleaning, afterburners, fabric filters with lime and specific dioxin treatment activated carbon injection.
Class 4 applies to the drying of Al shavings and turnings in rotary drums or similar equipment. Class 5 applies to thermal de-oiling of turnings in rotary kilns with afterburners and fabric filters. Class 6 refers to primary aluminum production by electrolysis and ingot smelting. Emissions from direct smelting are low and not considered further SCEP Considerable quantities of lead are recovered from scrap materials, in particular vehicle batteries.
A variety of furnace designs are used, including rotary furnaces, reverberatory, crucible, shaft, blast and electric furnaces. Continuous direct smelting processes may be used. Class 1 Secondary lead production from scrap containing PVC, no air pollution control system.
Class 4 Pure primary lead production. Zinc may be recovered from ores through a variety of processes. The co-occurrence of lead and zinc ores means that there may be a considerable overlap between these two sectors. Crude zinc may be produced in combination with a lead ore blast furnace or be recovered from the slag from such processes in rotary kilns. A variety of scrap materials may be used for zinc recovery as well as secondary raw materials such as dusts from copper alloy production, electric arc steel-making e.
The zinc production process from secondary raw materials can be done in a zinc recovery rotary kiln Waelz kiln , which is up to 95 m long with internal diameters of around 4. Melting of zinc may occur with the addition of fluxes including zinc and magnesium chlorides. Class 1 Rotary kiln with no air pollution control system. Class 3 Secondary zinc production with comprehensive air pollution control systems e.
Class 4 Zinc melting and primary zinc production. The properties of brass vary with the proportion of copper and zinc and with the addition of small amounts of other elements, such as aluminum, lead, tin, or nickel. In general, brass can be forged or hammered into various shapes, rolled, etc. Brass can be produced by either re-melting the brass scrap or melting stoichiometric amounts of copper and zinc together.
In principle, either one or both can be primary or secondary metal. Bronze is a hard yellowish-brown alloy of copper and tin, phosphorus, and sometimes small amounts of other elements. Bronze is harder than copper and brass. Bronze is often cast to make statues. Most bronze is produced by melting the copper and adding the desired amounts of tin, zinc, and other substances.
The properties of the alloy depend on the proportions of its components. Brass and bronze can be produced in simple, relatively small melting pots or in more sophisticated equipment such as induction furnaces equipped with air pollution control systems.
Class 1 should be used for plants which are more elaborated than class 2 furnaces, e. Class 2 should be used for simple smelting furnaces equipped with some flue gas abatement technology, e. Class 3 includes induction furnaces using mixed scrap and equipped with fabric filters.
Class 4 includes more sophisticated equipment such as induction ovens with APCS. The production of magnesium from ores is largely based on either electrolysis of MgCl 2 or chemical reduction of oxidized magnesium compounds.
The raw materials used are dolomite, magnesite, carnallite, brines or seawater depending on the process.
Non-ferrous metals: unmixed materials for industry
Whether it be handling raw material or processed material, we have the capability to optimise your Metals handling and weighing, from the point of arrival at the plant, all the way through to despatch. Our engineered systems enable nearly all processes that take place during the production metals. These include the production of Coke from Coal , Sinter and Pelletizing. Following Mining: On arrival at the Iron Works and Steel Processing Plant, we are involved with yard storage and material transport for mechanical and pneumatic conveying. As well as stockyard screening, sinter line build, sinter screen and transport.
The Casting and Forging product is playing a greater role in our everyday lives and is essential than it has ever been. The Casting and Forging industry fortunes is largely dependent on the level of activity within the construction building and non-building and automotive sectors. Ferrous and non ferrous metals and its alloys accounts for a large portion of all metal production. Metal ingots and billets are formed by a casting process.
Sorting non-ferrous metals
The Casting and Forging product is playing a greater role in our everyday lives and is essential than it has ever been. The Casting and Forging industry fortunes is largely dependent on the level of activity within the construction building and non-building and automotive sectors. Ferrous and non ferrous metals and its alloys accounts for a large portion of all metal production. Metal ingots and billets are formed by a casting process. The Casting process has traversed a long path and impacted human civilization for nearly five millennia. For any metal casting process, selection of right alloy, size, shape, thickness, tolerance, texture, and weight is very vital. Casting process involves melting the metal to be used, pouring it into a mould, letting it cool and then knocking out the casting.
Materials 101: Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals
The market for non-ferrous metals has diversified and is facing several challenges and opportunities. In particular, global changes in communication, electrification, digitalization, and the shift to green energy sources require new solutions to current and future metals. Additionally, tighter environmental regulations as well as limitations and changes in raw materials will also lead to new solutions. That is why SMS group has broadened its expertise in processing, supplies, and services for non-ferrous metal production lines. The SMS group team is developing process lines in the field of battery and electronic scrap recycling, refining and smelting furnaces, slag conditioning processes, and hydro- and pyro-metallurgical process combinations.
Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity. The mold cavity is created using two hardened tool steel dies which have been machined into shape and work similarly to an injection mold during the process. Most die castings are made from non-ferrous metals , specifically zinc , copper , aluminium , magnesium , lead , pewter , and tin -based alloys.
The Metal Products Business Unit is involved in the trade of metal products, including steel sheets, tubular products, and other products, as well as non-ferrous metals such as aluminum and titanium. The Business Unit offers unique service features in response to customer needs both domestically and internationally, while building a strong value chain along each product line. Through its domestic and international steel service center network, the Unit offers high-value-added services to automotive and home electronics manufacturers. The Metal Products Business Unit has expanded into a global network as a total services provider.
Aluminium process know-how and training innoval; aluminium sheet; training; study; studies; support;. Aluminium Recycling equipment and plants centro recycling; Balers; briquetter presses; Bale breakers; rotor tooth; shredders;. Aluminium Hot Rolling Mills wean united; single-stand reversing roughing mills; multi-stand finishing mills; twin-coiler single-stand finishing mills; plate mills; coil mills;. Aluminium Plate Stretchers fata hunter; hydraulic; plate loading; clamping; elongation;. Aluminium Foil Rolling mills fata hunter; gauge control; pass line configuration; coil handling; core handling;. Aluminium Tension leveling lines fata hunter; strip; bending; small diameter; rolls;.
Non-ferrous metals - Source of innovation
The iron and steel industry and the non-ferrous metal industry are highly material and energy intensive industries. Considerable amounts of the mass input become outputs in the form of releases to air and residues. The most relevant emissions are those to air. Ores and concentrates contain quantities of metals other than the prime target metal, and processes are designed to obtain pure target metal and recover other valuable metals as well. These other metals tend to concentrate in the residues from the process, and in turn, these residues form the raw material for other metal recovery processes.
Any solid metal that can be melted can be cast. Foundries are the factories that do this casting work, developing expertise with a handful of metals and methods, and designing standard products to maximize value and efficiency in production. Metals and casting methods influence each other: the best casting choice for a product is influenced by how its metal will behave in molten, cooling, and solid states. One of the major distinctions in specialization is whether foundries work with ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, or both. The definition of a ferrous metal is any metal that contains iron; non-ferrous metals do not.
Get in touch with us at our toll-free number or request a quote here:. Talk to an expert. These units also find metal encapsulated in the individual particle. Successful detection and separation of metal will protect your processing equipment from damage, which saves your organization money and down time.
Like their ferrous cousins, non-ferrous metals such as copper or brass can be recycled as many times as desired with almost no loss of quality. Reusing them conserves already scarce resources, making a vital contribution to environmental protection. The metal specialists at ALBA Group sort these valuable secondary raw materials thoroughly, process them in line with customers' requirements and supply them directly to the international market - closing the material recycling loop.
The Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals was established in It is a research and educational unit which is unique in the world scale. It educates future engineers and conducts research for the industries of metallurgy, materials science, processing of non-ferrous metals, physical metallurgy, as well as related branches. Since the early days of the faculty, it has maintained very close collaboration with industry. The development strategy of the faculty is mainly based on two fundamental notions: educating students and carrying out research, both leading to staff development.
Non-ferrous metals are valuable materials that enable innovative production but require efficient and high precision processing. Optimizing the production process of plates and coils according to the tolerances offers great potential for conservation of resources and the associated success of the company. Thickness and width measurement systems from Micro-Epsilon are equipped with discrete laser line sensors that also perform well on difficult surfaces, providing important data for control and monitoring purposes during the production of strip-shaped non-ferrous metals. Send email. Inductive sensors eddy current Capacitive sensors Laser sensors triangulation Confocal sensors white light Laser distance sensors time-of-flight Inductive sensors LVDT Magneto-inductive sensors Draw-wire sensors Displacement sensors for OEM and high volume production.
In metallurgy , a non-ferrous metal is a metal, including alloys , that does not contain iron ferrite in appreciable amounts. Generally more costly than ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals are used because of desirable properties such as low weight e. For example, bauxite is used as flux for blast furnaces , while others such as wolframite , pyrolusite and chromite are used in making ferrous alloys. Important non-ferrous metals include aluminium, copper, lead , nickel , tin , titanium and zinc, and alloys such as brass.