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Units manufactory wool Washed

Units manufactory wool Washed

In writing this little book the author believes he is supplying a want which most Students and Dyers of Cotton Fabrics have felt—that of a small handbook clearly describing the various processes and operations of the great industry of dyeing Cotton. The aim has not been to produce a very elaborate treatise but rather a book of a convenient size, and in order to do so it has been necessary to be brief and to omit many matters that would rightfully find a place in a larger treatise, but the author hopes that nothing of importance has been omitted. The most modern processes have been described in some detail; care has been taken to select those which experience shows to be thoroughly reliable and to give good results. There is scarcely any subject of so much importance to the bleacher, textile colourist or textile manufacturer as the structure and chemistry of the cotton fibre with which he has to deal. By the term chemistry we mean not only the composition of the fibre substance itself, but also the reactions it is capable of undergoing when brought into contact with various chemical substances—acids, alkalies, salts, etc. These reactions have a very important bearing on the operations of bleaching and dyeing of cotton fabrics.

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Content:

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In writing this little book the author believes he is supplying a want which most Students and Dyers of Cotton Fabrics have felt—that of a small handbook clearly describing the various processes and operations of the great industry of dyeing Cotton. The aim has not been to produce a very elaborate treatise but rather a book of a convenient size, and in order to do so it has been necessary to be brief and to omit many matters that would rightfully find a place in a larger treatise, but the author hopes that nothing of importance has been omitted.

The most modern processes have been described in some detail; care has been taken to select those which experience shows to be thoroughly reliable and to give good results. There is scarcely any subject of so much importance to the bleacher, textile colourist or textile manufacturer as the structure and chemistry of the cotton fibre with which he has to deal.

By the term chemistry we mean not only the composition of the fibre substance itself, but also the reactions it is capable of undergoing when brought into contact with various chemical substances—acids, alkalies, salts, etc. These reactions have a very important bearing on the operations of bleaching and dyeing of cotton fabrics.

A few words on vegetable textile fibres in general may be of interest. Fibres are met with in connection with plants in three ways. First, as cuticle or ciliary fibres or hairs; these are of no practical use, being much too short for preparing textile fabrics from, but they play an important part in the physiology of the plant. Second, as seed hairs; that is fibres that are attached to the seeds of many plants, such, for instance, as the common thistle and dandelion; the cotton fibre belongs to this group of seed hairs, while there are others, kapok, etc.

Whether it is serviceable as a textile fibre [Pg 2] depends upon its structure, which differs in different plants, and also upon the quantity available. The third class of fibre, which is by far the most numerous, consists of those found lying between the bark or outer cuticle and the true woody tissues of the plant.

This portion is known as the bast, and hence these fibres are known as "bast fibres". They are noticeable on account of the great length of the fibres, in some cases upwards of 6 feet, which can be obtained; but it should be pointed out that these long fibres are not the unit fibres, but are really bundles of the ultimate fibres aggregated together to form one long fibre, as found in and obtained from the plant.

Jute, flax, China grass and hemp are common fibres which are derived from the bast of the plants. There is an important point of difference between seed fibres and bast fibres, that is in the degree of purity. While the seed fibres are fairly free from impurities—cotton rarely containing more than 5 per cent. As regards the structure of the fibres, it will be sufficient to say that while seed hairs are cylindrical and tubular and have thin walls, bast fibres are more or less polygonal in form and are not essentially tubular, having thick walls and small central canals.

The Cotton Fibre. In this condition the fibre is found to consist of the actual fibrous substance itself, containing, however, about 8 per cent. In the process of manufacture into cotton cloths, and as the material passes through the operations of bleaching, dyeing or printing, the impurities are eliminated. Impurities of the Cotton Fibre.

Schunck made an investigation many years ago into the character of the impurities, and found them to consist of the following substances:—. Cotton Wax. It is lighter than water, has a waxy lustre, is somewhat translucent, is easily powdered, and melts below the boiling point of water. It is insoluble in water, but dissolves in alcohol and in ether. When boiled with weak caustic soda it melts but is not dissolved by the alkali; it can, however, be dissolved by boiling with alcoholic caustic potash.

This wax is found fairly uniformly distributed over the surface of the cotton fibre, and it is due to this fact that raw cotton is wetted by water only with difficulty. Fatty Acids. Probably stearic acid is the main constituent of this fatty acid.

Colouring Matter. One of these is readily soluble in alcohol, the other only sparingly so. The presence in relatively large quantities of these bodies accounts for the brown colour of Egyptian and some other dark-coloured varieties of cotton. Pectic Acid. It can be obtained in the form of an amorphous substance of a light yellow colour, not unlike gum in appearance. It is soluble in boiling water, and the solution has a faint acid reaction.

Acids and many metallic [Pg 4] salts, such as mercury, chloride and lead acetate, precipitate pectic acid from its solutions. Alkalies combine with it, and these compounds form brown substances, are but sparingly soluble in water, and many of them can be precipitated out by addition of neutral salts, like sodium and ammonium chlorides.

Structure of the Cotton Fibre. When seen under the microscope fully ripe cotton presents the appearance of irregularly twisted ribbons, with thick rounded edges. The thickest part is the root end, or point of attachment to the seed. The free end terminates in a point. In Fig. These show that it is a collapsed cylinder, the walls being of considerable thickness when compared with the internal bore or canal.

Perfectly developed, well-formed cotton fibres always present this appearance. But all commercial cottons contain more or less of fibres which are not perfectly developed or are unripe. These are known as "dead fibres"; they do not spin well and they do not dye well. On examination under the microscope it is seen that these fibres have not the flattened, twisted appearance of the ripe fibres, but are flatter, [Pg 5] and the central canal is almost obliterated and the fibres are but little twisted.

Dead fibres are thin, brittle and weak. Composition of the Cotton Fibres. When stripped of the comparatively small quantities of impurities, cotton is found to consist of a substance to which the name of cellulose has been given. Cellulose is a compound of the three elements, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, in the proportions shown in the following analysis:—. Cellulose may be obtained in a pure condition from cotton by treatment with alkalies, followed by washing, and by treatment with alkaline hypochlorites, acids, washing and, finally, drying.

As thus obtained it is a white substance having the form of the fibre from which it is procured, showing a slight lustre, and is slightly translucent. The specific gravity is 1. It is characterised by being very inert, a property of considerable value from a technical point of view, as enabling the fibres to stand the various operations of bleaching, dyeing, printing, finishing, etc. Nevertheless, by suitable means, cellulose can be made to undergo various chemical decompositions which will be noted in some detail.

Cellulose on exposure to the air will absorb moisture or water. This is known as hygroscopic moisture, or "water of condition". The amount in cotton is about 8 per cent. Cotton cellulose is insoluble in all ordinary solvents, such as water, ether, alcohol, chloroform, benzene, etc. The action of alkalies on cellulose or cotton is one of great importance in view of the universal use of alkaline liquors made from soda or caustic soda in the scouring, bleaching and dyeing of cotton, while great interest attaches to the use of caustic soda in the "mercerising" of cotton.

Dilute solutions of the caustic alkalies, caustic soda or caustic potash, of from 2 to 7 per cent. Caustic alkali solutions of from 1 to 2 per cent. Solutions of caustic soda of greater strength than 3 per cent.

The action of strong solutions of caustic soda or caustic potash upon cellulose or cotton is somewhat different. Mercer found that solutions containing 10 per cent. This is shown in Fig. The action which takes place is as follows: The cellulose enters into a combination with the alkali and there is formed a sodium cellulose, which has the formula C 6 H 10 O 5 2NaOH.

This alkali cellulose, however, is not a stable body; by washing with water the alkali is removed, and hydrated cellulose is obtained, which has the formula C 6 H 10 O 5 H 2 O. Water removes the whole of the alkali, but alcohol only removes one half. It has been observed that during the process of washing with water the fibre shrinks very much.

This shrinkage is more particularly to be observed in the case of cotton. As John Mercer was the first to point out the action of the alkaline solutions on cotton, the process has become known as "mercerisation". Solutions of caustic soda of 1. It is interesting to observe that the addition of zinc oxide to the caustic solution increases its mercerising powers. Solutions of 1. In addition to the change brought about by the shrinking and thickening of the material, the mercerised fibres are stronger than the untreated fibres, and at the same time they have a stronger affinity for dyes, a piece of cloth mercerised taking up three times as much colouring matter as a piece of unmercerised cloth from the same dye-bath.

The shrinkage of the cotton, which takes place during the operation of washing with water, was for a long time a bar to any practical application of the "mercerising" process, but some years ago Lowe ascertained that by conducting the operation while the cotton was stretched or in a state of tension this shrinkage did not take place; further, Thomas and Prevost found that the cotton so treated gained a silky [Pg 9] lustre, and it has since been ascertained that this lustre is most highly developed with the long-stapled Egyptian and Sea Island cottons.

This mercerising under tension is now applied on a large scale to produce silkified cotton. When viewed under the microscope, the silkified cotton fibres have the appearance shown in Fig. This structure fully accounts for the silky lustre possessed by the mercerised fibres. Silky mercerised cotton has very considerable affinity for dye-stuffs, taking them up much more readily from dye-baths, and it is dyed in very brilliant shades. In the chapter on Scouring and Bleaching of Cotton, some reference will be made to the action of alkalies on cotton.

The action of acids on cellulose is a very varied one, being dependent upon several factors, such as the particular acid [Pg 10] used, the strength of the acid, duration of action, temperature, etc. As a rule, organic acids—for example acetic, oxalic, citric, tartaric—have no action on cellulose or cotton.

Solutions of sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid of 2 per cent. This is important, as in certain operations of bleaching cotton and other vegetable fibres it is necessary to sour them, which could not be done if acids acted on them, but it is important to thoroughly wash the goods afterwards.

When the acid solutions are used at the boil they have a disintegrating effect on the cellulose, the latter being converted into hydrocellulose. When dried, the cellulose is very brittle and powdery, which in the case of cotton yarn being so treated would show itself by the yarn becoming tender and rotten. The degree of action varies with the temperature the higher this is the stronger the action , and also according to the strength of the acid solution.

Thus a 10 per cent. A dilute acid with 8 volumes of water, used in the cold, takes three hours' immersion before any action on the cotton becomes evident.

When cellulose cotton is immersed in strong sulphuric acid the cotton becomes gradually dissolved; as the action progresses cellulose sulphates are formed, and some hydrolytic action takes place, with the formation of sugar. This fact has long been known, but only recently has it been shown that dextrose was the variety of sugar which was [Pg 11] formed.

On diluting the strong acid solution with water there is precipitated out the hydro or oxycelluloses that have been formed, while the cellulose sulphates are retained in solution. By suitable means the calcium, barium, or lead salts of these cellulose-sulphuric acids can be prepared. Analysis of them shows that these salts undergo hydrolysis, and lose half their sulphuric acid.

The action of strong sulphuric acid has a practical application in the production of parchment paper; unsized paper is immersed in strong acid of the proper strength for about a minute, and then immediately rinsed in water.

Supplier list

As fast fashion becomes increasingly essential and civil discord continues to plague low-cost nations like Bangladesh and Cambodia, interest in sourcing from Central and South America continues to pique. Peru , in particular, has made a name for itself as a quick-turn, high-quality manufacturing locale with model compliance standards and workmanship unmatched among many of its regional competitors. The country will showcase the quality and variety of its natural fibers, namely Pima cotton and alpaca.

Read more. All textiles are made up of fibres that are arranged in different ways to create the desired strength, durability, appearance and texture. The fibres can be of countless origins, but can be grouped into four main categories.

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Textile manufacturing

For many years, we have worked hard to build strong, long-term relations with our suppliers, based on mutual trust and transparency. This allows us to disclose the names, names, locations as well as some additional information of their factories without major concerns about the ongoing competition on the best available production capacity in our industry. On the contrary, our experience shows that this step incentivises our suppliers for increasingly taking ownership over their sustainability and that it recognises the progress they make. Additionally, it includes all processing factories, which can be subcontracted by our first tier manufacturing supplier factories for specific tasks.

Our relationships with our suppliers have been developed over many years.

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Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products.

Sourcing Spotlight: Manufacturing in Peru

A bed sheet is a flat-woven textile that is used on a bed between the occupant of a bed and the warm blanket above. It is generally a rectangle of broadloomed fabric, meaning it is made without a center seam. Bed sheets have hems at top and bottom. The selvages, or finished edges of the woven sheet as it is made on the loom are used as side seams and thus there is no need for hemming on the sides. Today, the bed sheet comes as part of a set of bed linens that match in color, fabric, and detail and includes the fitted sheet to cover the mattress , the flat sheet and at least one pillow case. The bed sheet may be made of a variety of fibers, including linen, cotton, synthetics often blended with natural fibers such as cotton and occasionally silk. Bed sheets are made of a wide variety of fabrics. Particularly popular is percale, a closely-woven plain weave of all cotton or cotton-polyester blend that is smooth, cool, and comfortable against the skin.

Textile manufacturing or production is a very complex process. This is the basic and primary flowchart of textile manufacturing. Yarn from spinning section ↓.

Eman is a writer and textile engineer. She obtained her bachelor's degree in textile sciences from the Faculty of Applied Arts. Synthetic fibers are man-made fibers. Most of the synthetic fibers are made from polymers produced by polymerization.

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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia. Textile Manufacturing Process: Clothing is the basic human need.

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This is the 6kg top load washing machine from Haier—a smaller unit that is fit for a small family or a couple of friends. Built with a traditional motor, this washer uses a pulsating wash action to clean soiled clothing more effectively. You can easily control your wash programs with the LED electronic control panel and conveniently check on the progress with the Time Remaining Display.

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