Space production electric lamps
How electric light created new spaces that transformed the built environment and the perception of modern architecture. In this book, Sandy Isenstadt examines electric light as a form of architecture—as a new, uniquely modern kind of building material. Electric light was more than just a novel way of brightening a room or illuminating a streetscape; it brought with it new ways of perceiving and experiencing space itself. Isenstadt shows how the introduction of electric lighting at the end of the nineteenth century created new architectural spaces that altered and sometimes eclipsed previously existing spaces.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How do solar panels work? - Richard Komp
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- Photosynthesis under artificial light: the shift in primary and secondary metabolism
- U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
- Life changes with electricity
- Tailormade lighting
- Light Bulb
- “Electric Light An Architectural History” by Dr. Sandy Isenstadt
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Photosynthesis under artificial light: the shift in primary and secondary metabolism
CBECS data collection is an inherently complex and time-consuming process. The latest CBECS considers a sample of buildings designed to be representative of all commercial buildings in On-site surveys of the sampled buildings were conducted from April through November of , and energy bill data for those buildings was collected in Starting in and continuing into , EIA published data on the characteristics of the buildings and in mid issued a public use building characteristics file.
Data on energy use and expenditures with end-use detail was released in following extensive analysis to relate characteristics of buildings to their energy bills. Lighting is an area where improvements in energy efficiency are often sought. The advent of new lighting technologies and changes to lighting efficiency standards have contributed to steep reductions in the percentage of electricity used by commercial buildings for lighting since the prior CBECS in The CBECS includes specific questions on types of lighting equipment used, the amount of floorspace with lighting lit floorspace per building, and the percentage of lit floorspace by type of equipment—as well as other building characteristics and energy consumption data.
EIA applies engineering-based statistical models to characteristics data to break out energy consumption into end uses, including lighting. The latest CBECS collected new information on lighting controls and lighting strategies, which are discussed in the final section of this report. Each of these lighting types has characteristics that make them best suited to specific lighting needs.
However, incandescent bulbs usually produce light that renders colors so that they look the same under the light as they do in daylight so consumers may prefer them in certain situations. Halogen lamps are a category of incandescent bulb that offer high-quality light with increased energy efficiency. High-intensity discharge lamps produce very bright light, making them useful for lighting large areas and, as such, they are commonly used in high-ceiling spaces with open layouts such as sports arenas , storage areas, and big-box retail stores.
LEDs are a highly efficient and durable type of directional lighting that is rapidly evolving to produce the quality of light consumers expect. The Other lighting category includes less common bulb types, many of which have particular uses, such as germicidal lights, laser lights, and neon lights. The use of bulbs in the Other lighting category is so specialized that not enough data are available to summarize in the CBECS, and so they are not discussed in the following sections.
CBECS is the only national study that provides estimates for the number of commercial buildings, the amount of total floorspace in these buildings, and the amount of floorspace that is lit. Respondents identify the types of bulbs used in their building, then they report the share of lit floorspace covered by each bulb type.
Some spaces may be lit by more than one type of lighting such as an office that uses overhead standard fluorescent lighting with supplemental incandescent task lights Figure 1.
Buildings that do not normally use any lighting are vacant buildings, warehouses, and vehicle storage buildings. The total area lit by each of the six lighting types is shown in the far right column of Table 2 and is a valuable metric for measuring lighting coverage within buildings by bulb type.
CFLs most often replace incandescent bulbs, a lighting type that has decreased in use since Energy consumed by lighting Although lighting continues to use a large proportion of the total energy consumed by commercial buildings, the amount of energy used for lighting decreased substantially with the adoption of more efficient lighting technologies that are increasingly economical. However, lighting remains one of the largest end uses of electricity, second only to the broad category of other electricity end uses.
The Other category of electricity uses includes miscellaneous electric loads MELs , process equipment, motors, and air compressors. Programs and policies that affect lighting Increasing lighting efficiency has been a focus in many programs conducted by both governmental entities and electric utilities. EPAct placed more stringent performance standards on some lighting types common in commercial buildings.
It also created a temporary tax credit for energy efficient commercial buildings, which gave building owners an incentive to invest in new lighting types. EISA increased the minimum efficiency standards for a broader range of bulb types. Incandescent bulbs could not meet these increased standards, but other bulb types did. EISA increases efficiency standards again in , setting a threshold that neither incandescent bulbs nor halogen bulbs are expected to be able to meet, which could further the shift toward standard fluorescent, CFL, and particularly LED bulbs.
Updates to building codes at the national, state, and local levels also served to promote more efficient forms of lighting. Future CBECS data collections will capture information about lighting installed under the new standards, but the change in the distribution of lighting types from suggests these policies have resulted in reduced lighting demand in commercial building spaces.
These programs may include free or subsidized high-efficiency bulbs, education about energy efficiency, benchmarking data, and other services intended to help improve commercial building lighting efficiency.
Compared with alternative investments in energy efficiency—such as upgrading heating, ventilation, and air conditioning HVAC systems or replacing insulation—lighting is an easy, accessible, and affordable change that building operators can make to reduce energy expenses. Therefore, energy efficiency programs are designed to encourage a shift toward more efficient forms of lighting, such as fluorescent and LED bulbs. Different activities demand different amounts of light within a building.
Vacant, warehouse and storage, and religious worship buildings light less of their floorspace than other commercial buildings. Table L1. Total floorspace and lit floorspace by lighting type and principal building activity Commercial building lighting by bulb type The following six charts show shares of floorspace lit by each type of bulb for the principal building activities.
In each chart, the building activities are ordered from those with the most lit floorspace by bulb type to those with the least as determined by the CBECS. Where changes between the and were found to be statistically significant, they are noted in each section. Standard fluorescent bulbs provide light to the majority of lit floorspace across all building activities Figure 6. Though this lighting type has been common in commercial buildings for decades, the technology continues to evolve.
Tubes for standard fluorescents have become increasingly narrow in diameter, moving from T lamps to T-8 and T-5, meaning that they can be made with higher quality materials, resulting in a more efficient bulb.
Ballasts for standard fluorescent lights, the components that regulate electricity flow to the bulbs, have also improved. Electronic ballasts reduce flickering and noise and are more energy efficient than older magnetic ballasts. Given the prevalence of standard fluorescents in commercial buildings, these improvements in efficiency likely contributed greatly to the dramatic reductions in energy used for lighting in commercial buildings observed between and Compact fluorescent The share of lit floorspace illuminated by compact fluorescent lighting increased by five percentage points from to Figure 7.
Incandescent Higher governmental standards for lighting efficiency have decreased the availability of comparatively energy-intensive incandescent lighting. High-intensity discharge High-intensity discharge HID lamps produce very bright light and are well-suited for illuminating large, open spaces. Compared with newer forms of lighting, such as LEDs, HID lamps are less efficient and are also harder to integrate into lighting control systems because they are difficult to dim and do not turn on instantly Figure 9.
Halogen Halogen lights are a type of incandescent bulb that contain halogen gas, which increases their efficiency.
Halogen bulbs also have better color rendition, compared with other lighting types, producing light more similar to daylight. Figure Light-emitting diode Light-emitting diode lamps—more commonly known as LEDs—are a newer and highly-efficient type of lighting. LED technology is rapidly evolving, but these lamps were relatively new to the market as a conventional lighting type in Figure However, the percent of electricity consumed by lighting varies only slightly across the building size categories.
Table L2. Total lit floorspace by lighting type and size of building and year constructed. The use of lighting in warehouse and storage buildings was mostly unchanged between and Figure Long-term trends in lighting in commercial buildings The questions EIA asks about lighting within buildings have remained nearly identical in every CBECS since , facilitating comparisons across the last four vintages of data.
Table 3. Source: U. Energy Information Administration, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey The share of floorspace lit by standard fluorescent lighting has remained relatively stable. Figure 16 and Table 4. The proportion of lit floorspace illuminated by CFLs has increased while the share illuminated by incandescent lighting has gradually decreased. CFLs overtook incandescent lamps in to become the second most-used lighting type.
Table 4. These systems tend to be deployed in larger buildings. Specific questions on this product may be directed to Maggie Woodward. EIA improves its propane and other hydrocarbon gas liquids data November 12, Participation in electricity customer choice programs has remained unchanged since November 1, Global energy consumption driven by more electricity in residential, commercial buildings October 21, Footnotes 1 For more information on lighting technologies, efficacies, and expected lifetimes, see Appendices C and D of the U.
The highest possible CRI value is , which would be equivalent to daylight. Department of Energy buildingsdatabook.
U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
The light-emitting diode LED is one of today's most energy-efficient and rapidly-developing lighting technologies. Quality LED light bulbs last longer, are more durable, and offer comparable or better light quality than other types of lighting. LED is a highly energy efficient lighting technology, and has the potential to fundamentally change the future of lighting in the United States. Widespread use of LED lighting has the greatest potential impact on energy savings in the United States. Key differences include the following:.
From the earliest periods of history until the beginning of the 19th century, fire was man's primary source of light. This light was produced through different means—torches, candles , oil and gas lamps. Besides the danger presented by an open flame especially when used indoors , these sources of light also provided insufficient illumination. The first attempts at using electric light were made by English chemist Sir Humphry Davy. In , Davy showed that electric currents could heat thin strips of metal to white heat, thus producing light.
Life changes with electricity
Lighting efficiency has improved considerably since The phase-down of incandescent lamps is prompting global technology shifts towards more efficient technologies such as fluorescent lamps especially in developing countries in Asia , although it has also led to lamps of similar low efficacy, such as halogens, gaining popularity. LED sales now appear to have overtaken fluorescent sales in the residential sector, and that share is expected to continue expanding. Nevertheless, many markets — especially the replacement-lamp segment — are dominated by halogen and fluorescent lamps. Current trends suggest the market is on track to follow the SDS trajectory by Countries could also extend phase-out policies to include halogen lamps, which are only marginally more efficient than incandescent ones. LEDs are now massively produced in many markets, and competition among manufacturers is driving further innovation, wider product choices and lower prices. China has taken the lead in manufacturing, benefiting from strong financial subsidies and incentives from the government, and prices have fallen substantially to USD per LED lamp. Prices are similar in many European markets and in North America. The next several years will test whether LED technology is a victim of its own success: long lamp lifetimes may mean that a new business model will be needed to promote LED sales, for example to provide lighting in commercial buildings and for street lighting.
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John W. Nature of Voltaic BatteriesConstruction of the Elements. Development of the DynamoElectric PrincipleLadds.
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Airam has been a strongly Finnish family business and lighting expert since Nowadays, Airam offers a comprehensive range of bulbs and luminaires for both consumer and professional lighting. In the s, a domestic electric lamp service began. Our own V bulb production under the Airam trademark started in There are different theories about the origin of the name.
“Electric Light An Architectural History” by Dr. Sandy Isenstadt
Account Options Anmelden. E-Book — kostenlos. United States Census of Manufactures, : Industry statistics. Volume II. Inhalt Miscellaneous chemical products 28H. Dairy products
Lamp , a device for producing illumination , consisting originally of a vessel containing a wick soaked in combustible material, and subsequently such other light-producing instruments as gas and electric lamps. The lamp was invented at least as early as 70, bce. Originally it consisted of a hollowed-out rock filled with moss or some other absorbent material that was soaked with animal fat and ignited. In the Mediterranean area and the Middle East , the earliest lamp had a shell shape.
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By Gene Quinn January 26, Thomas Edison, circa On January 27, , Thomas Edison received U. Patent No.
An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current. It is the most common form of artificial lighting and is essential to modern society,  providing interior lighting for buildings and exterior light for evening and nighttime activities. In technical usage, a replaceable component that produces light from electricity is called a lamp. The electrical connection to the socket may be made with a screw-thread base, two metal pins, two metal caps or a bayonet cap. The three main categories of electric lights are incandescent lamps, which produce light by a filament heated white-hot by electric current, gas-discharge lamps , which produce light by means of an electric arc through a gas, and LED lamps , which produce light by a flow of electrons across a band gap in a semiconductor.
Electricity makes marvelous things happen and its capacity to produce bright, radiant light makes an especially striking impression when it arrives. Energy has traditionally been studied by researchers within the fields of natural sciences and economy. Anthropologists who have engaged with energy and society have mainly concerned themselves with fossil fuels and the role of these in global politics—specifically, around issues of climate change, energy security, and oil depletion. The societal impact of introducing electricity and the enormous transformation going on in the South in recent years have received little attention. This affects the state-citizen relationship in crucial ways.
Чистота заключена в буквальном значении имени - Капля Росы. В ушах зазвучал голос старого канадца. Капля Росы. Очевидно, она перевела свое имя на единственный язык, равно доступный ей и ее клиенту, - английский.