Space plant linen, hemp, kenaf and jute fibers
Plant-based fibers such as flax, jute, sisal, hemp, and kenaf have been frequently used in the manufacturing of biocomposites. Natural fibres possess a high strength to weight ratio, non-corrosive nature, high fracture toughness, renewability, and sustainability, which give them unique advantages over other materials. The development of biocomposites by reinforcing natural fibres has attracted attention of scientists and researchers due to environmental benefits and improved mechanical performance. Manufacturing of biocomposites from renewable sources is a challenging task, involving metals, polymers, and ceramics.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Green Hemp/Kenaf/Jute Fiber Extractor Machine
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- Natural Fiber Composites Slowly Take Root
- Natural Cellulose Fibers Upgrading
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- Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
- Plant Fibres for Textile and Technical Applications
- Potential use of plant fibres and their composites for biomedical applications
- USDA Crop Fiber Research Collection
- Bast Fibers
Natural Fiber Composites Slowly Take Root
Lower-than-expected automotive growth reshapes outlook, encourages process development and exploration of new markets. The selection of mat shown twice , LD low-density , or HD high-density material is dependent upon the various heating methods used. All are 50 percent natural fiber and 50 percent synthetic fiber. Source: Hempline Inc. A bale of short staple hemp fiber, following retting, separation and cleaning. Source: Quadrant Natural Fiber CompositesThe rear cargo area load floor of the Porsche Cayenne is composed of structural layers of natural fiber composites surrounding an expanded polypropylene foam core and covered with a carpet cloth.
All materials are comolded in a single, low-pressure press cycle. The floors are also used on the Volkswagen Touareg and new Audi Q7 vehicles, built on the same platform. Source: Flexform TechnologiesA door panel from the new Mercedes M-Class and R-Class inset platforms highlights the moldability characteristics of natural fiber. The back side attachments dark color are preloaded into the tool and bonded to the natural fiber composite during molding without resort to adhesives, a key factor in labor and material savings.
Driven by increasing environmental awareness, automakers in the s made significant advancements in the development of natural fiber composites, with end-use primarily in automotive interiors.
A number of vehicle models, first in Europe and then in North America, featured natural fiber-reinforced thermosets and thermoplastics in door panels, package trays, seat backs and trunk liners. Promoted as low-cost and low-weight alternatives to fiberglass, these agricultural products, including flax, jute, hemp and kenaf, signaled the start of a "green" industry with enormous potential.
A market study in projected growth rates exceeding 50 percent per annum through Actual growth, according to natural fiber suppliers, has been much lower, although still respectable at 10 to 15 percent per year.
Factors that have retarded growth include limitations in processing technologies and molded part performance as well as the recent economic lull that depressed auto sales and prompted a renewed focus by OEMs on purchased part price, which temporarily overshadowed potential weight savings, and concerns for recyclability and environmental stewardship.
There remains, however, a general consensus about the main advantages of natural fiber reinforcements, including lower weight, availability, ease of recycling, thermal and acoustic insulation, and carbon dioxide neutrality when burned, the natural fibers reportedly give off no more carbon dioxide [CO 2 ] than they consumed while growing.
On average, the production of natural fiber suitable for composites is some 60 percent lower in energy consumption than the manufacture of glass fibers. These advantages in energy and environmental comparisons are becoming more quantifiable through the use of Life Cycle Analysis methodology being promoted by the U. Suppliers' efforts have been refocused on the development of new processes and on exterior applications, as well as markets beyond automotive.
The universe of "bio-fibers" is fairly broad. Included are very short wood fibers from both deciduous and coniferous sources, used as fillers in extruded plastic lumber and molding compounds. Also represented are straw from corn, wheat and rice crops, and various natural grasses. From a commercial standpoint, the most viable structural fibers come from purpose-grown textile plants and some fruit trees.
Such fibers can generally be classified into three types, says Prof. Leaf fibers, including sisal, henequen, pineapple and banana, are noted for improving composite toughness with somewhat lower structural contribution. Finally, seed or fruit fibers — cotton, kapok and coir from coconut husks — demonstrate elastomeric type toughness, but are not structural. Drzal, Prof. Amar Mohanty and Dr. Among the purpose-grown plants, bast fibers represent the vast majority of natural fibers with potential for composites usage.
Bast plant stems are characterized by long fibers surrounding a core of pulp or short fibers and covered with a protective bark layer. Separation of the useful fibers from the bark and core starts with a process called "retting," in which the cut stalks are soaked in water or left in the field in a humid environment for up to several weeks to degrade the natural binders.
This makes the fiber bundles easier to process by mechanical means, or by hand, as is the case in many developing countries. As of the mids, flax and jute were the principal fibers used in biocomposites, but have been joined by higher strength industrial hemp and kenaf, at least in automotive applications. Flax fibers are grown in two common forms.
In North America, almost all flax is of the oil seed variety, predominantly grown in central Canada, but also cultivated in North Dakota and Minnesota.
Its primary use is for linseed oil and food products. Attempts to commercialize the stalk fibers for composites were only marginally successful and have been largely abandoned. However, textile flax, a much taller plant and the source of commercial linen fiber used in clothing, now is the source for almost all flax-based natural fiber composites.
The jute plant is native to southeast Asia, with India and Bangladesh responsible for more than 90 percent of worldwide production. Popular for the production of carpet backing, tote bags, sack cloth burlap and rope, jute is cut, retted, separated and cleaned in largely manual processes. Although jute has been partially replaced by other bast fibers in some of its earliest composite applications, it continues to be popular in interior automotive components.
The use of kenaf fiber as a reinforcement has grown substantially in the past decade. Resembling the hibiscus plant and related to cotton and okra, kenaf is grown widely in India and China, which together account for more than 75 percent of worldwide kenaf production. In the U. An attractive feature of kenaf is that up to 40 percent of the stalk yields usable fiber, roughly twice that of jute, hemp and flax, which makes the fiber quite economical.
Also, the plant can grow from seed to heights of 3. Asian kenaf is predominantly grown for the fiber, and soaking of the stalks during the retting process, combined with manual removal of the fibers, is believed to result in superior reinforcement quality.
Comparatively, U. The kenaf core materials, which can be used as absorbents and animal bedding, have more ready markets. While both companies supply some fiber to the composites market, they also are pursuing other applications, such as extruded plastic fencing and decking, and furniture padding.
Industrial hemp is grown in more than 40 industrialized countries, although it is illegal to grow today in the U. Outlawed since the s because it is a variety of the plant species cannabis sativa , industrial hemp contains less than one percent THC deltatetrahydrocannabinol , the active ingredient in the similar marijuana plant which contains 5 to 20 percent THC. Hemp is grown in most countries in Europe, with Romania the largest producer. End uses include rope and twine, clothing and composite products.
Hemp is a robust plant, able to grow in less than perfect soils and across a broad range of climate zones. In northern climates, the planting season is March to May and harvesting occurs about four months later, when the hemp plants reach 6.
Delaware, Ontario, Canada to join efforts in the mids to convince Canadian legislators to permit the growing of industrial hemp. The company was founded in , and produced the first bale of production fiber in Today, the company is the primary supplier of processed hemp fiber to the North American natural fiber composites market.
Hempline's primary hemp fiber is shipped in purity levels from 85 to 99 percent and in staple lengths of up to The process of producing natural fiber reinforcements includes a drying step, where the natural plant moisture, including that gained during the retting process, must be removed.
Over time, however, the fibers will absorb moisture from the air to return to some equilibrium point, which varies by fiber, but is typically in the range of 5 to 15 percent by weight. Encapsulation of the fiber in composite resins retards this pickup significantly, but the overall moisture pickup still exceeds that of fiberglass composites.
Historically, this has precluded the use of natural fiber composites in high moisture environments such as exterior automotive body panels, although some breakthroughs and developments are occurring in that area.
Bast fiber composites are predominantly used in automotive interior panels, such as doors, pillar trim, trunk liners and package or rear-parcel trays. Early composites, replacing wood fiberboard, were a mixture of flax and sisal fibers in an epoxy matrix, first used on the Mercedes E-Class door panels in the early s.
The fibers are generally supplied in a needle-punched nonwoven mat format, and the simplest method involves placing the mat into the heated mold, pouring liquid resin on top, and pressing until cured. Most thermosetting resins, including polyester, epoxy, phenolic and urethanes, can serve as the matrix for natural fiber composites.
Such low-viscosity resins provide excellent fiber wetting and adhesion, and the composites can be compression molded in more complex shapes than wood fiber-based materials.
An alternate method of combining the materials is preimpregnation of the mat prior to compression molding. With increasing emphasis on recyclability, thermosets have been largely supplanted by thermoplastics in natural fiber interior components. Selection of the resin matrix is limited to polymers with lower melt-points — generally polypropylene and to a lesser extent, polyethylene. Keys to minimizing this degradation include lower process temperatures and short thermal exposure.
Both polypropylene and polyethylene have processable melt viscosities at or below this higher temperature. For interior components made using thermoplastic matrices, the predominant format is still a needle-punched nonwoven mat. The resin is integrated via the use of thermoplastic fibers that are mixed with the natural fibers during a mat formation process that involves either a carding or an air-laying method.
The needled fleece is a stable, easy to handle material with controlled levels of resin and fibers. Areal weights of the materials can be varied as needed to meet specific molded part thickness requirements, simply by changing the number of mat layers stacked prior to needling. In-mold decoration technologies permit comolding of carpet, fabric or decorative film overlays with the natural fiber composite, generally without the need for adhesives, resulting in a single-step manufacturing process.
Cycle times are typically under one minute per part. Molding pressures are low, in the range of 0. High levels of densification reduce desired attributes of natural fiber composites, specifically ductility and absorption of energy and noise.
The company also processes significant quantities of hemp and some kenaf. We would use more if additional domestic sources can be developed and they can supply a quality and cost-competitive product. Rolls or sheets are commonly produced in widths up to 3.
Custom formulations also are possible. We have found this ratio of fibers ensures relatively consistent performance in the finished part. Weighing 3. One process that is gaining traction in long glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics LFRT is the Direct Long Fiber Injection D-LFT process, in which raw polypropylene and glass reinforcements are melt compounded in a twin-screw extruder, producing a molten charge that is subsequently compression molded in a cold tool.
Several of the companies involved in development of natural fiber applications have made D-LFT processing a key component in their commercialization efforts. Composite Products Inc. Winona, Minn. The company recently reported on efforts using corn hull particulate, from 0. Abaca, a relative of the banana plant, is grown by small farmers in the Philippines. Known as "Manila hemp," abaca has long been a favorite fiber for marine ropes, although it is not related to the bast hemp plant described earlier.
The fibers are stripped from the multiple 4m to 6m 12 ft to 20 ft tall leaf stalks of the mature plants, cleaned, dried and twisted into fiber for spooling. The finished fiber is supplied to Rieter by Manila Cordage Co. Makati City, The Philippines.
Natural Cellulose Fibers Upgrading
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Bast fibers are the fibrous part of the plant just below the bark. They are a family of fibers that allow for the entire plant to be used. These fibers are annually renewable crops that come off of the stalks rather than the leaves and grow in 90 to days. These low maintenance, high-quality fibers do not require chemicals or pesticides, they put nutrients back into the earth similar to nitrates, take up less space and water, and erosion is nonexistent. For these reasons, bast fibers are quickly becoming the millennial alternative for environmental responsibility.
The combination of unique properties that emerge as a consequence of the particular arrangement and interactions between the different constituents provides immense opportunities for advanced material technologies. This series of four volumes brings an interdisciplinary effort to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications, and performance of these advanced materials, with this volume focusing on their properties and characterization. He has extensive expertise in the synthesis of polymers, nano materials, nanocomposites, biocomposites, graft copolymers, high performance capacitors and electrochromic materials. He sits on the editorial board of several SCI journals. She received her B. Phil; in Organic Chemistry and Ph. She has published more than 30 research papers in several international journals, co-authored five books and has also published 25 book chapters in the field of polymeric materials. He holds a Ph.
Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
JMRT provides an international medium for the publication of theoretical and experimental studies related to Metallurgy, Materials and Minerals research and technology. Materials - A2. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and qualitative measure of the journal's impact.
Because we are living in an era of Green Science and Technology, developments in the field of bio- and nano- polymer composite materials for advanced structural and medical applications is a rapidly emerging area and the subject of scientific attention. In light of the continuously deteriorating environmental conditions, researchers all over the world have focused an enormous amount of scientific research towards bio-based materials because of their cost effectiveness, eco-friendliness and renewability. This handbook deals with cellulose fibers and nano-fibers and covers the latest advances in bio- and nano- polymer composite materials. This rapidly expanding field is generating many exciting new materials with novel properties and promises to yield advanced applications in diverse fields.
Plant Fibres for Textile and Technical Applications
An authentic resource for the fundamentals, applied techniques, applications and recent advancements of all the main areas of technical textiles. Created to be a comprehensive reference, High Performance Technical Textiles includes the review of a wide range of technical textiles from household to space textiles. The contributors—noted experts in the field from all the continents—offer in-depth coverage on the fibre materials, manufacturing processes and techniques, applications, current developments, sustainability and future trends.
Lower-than-expected automotive growth reshapes outlook, encourages process development and exploration of new markets. The selection of mat shown twice , LD low-density , or HD high-density material is dependent upon the various heating methods used. All are 50 percent natural fiber and 50 percent synthetic fiber. Source: Hempline Inc. A bale of short staple hemp fiber, following retting, separation and cleaning.
Potential use of plant fibres and their composites for biomedical applications
These tissues are made of lignins, gums, proteins, hemicellulose etc. The modern techniques try to replace the complicated, labor-intense treatment of the fibers by harsh chemicals — boiling in hot, concentrated alkaline or acidic concoctions under pressure. The results are not only polluting the environment and thus offsetting the advantages of the use of natural fibers but usually also damage the cellulose and weaken the fibers because of the aggressive chemical treatment. The method of Catalytic Advanced Oxidation revolutionizes the bast fiber upgrading by using hydrogen peroxid e H 2 O 2 combined with our Oxycatalyst to obtain clean, white natural cellulose fibers - through oxidative elimination of the non-cellulosic parts of the plant: lignins, gums, pectins, hemicellulose. Hydrogen Peroxide is the most environmentally friendly chemica l of all, because it decomposes into water and oxygen , without any other byproducts being added by H 2 O 2.
Biodegradable Matrices and Composites View all 17 Articles. The increase in awareness of the damage caused by synthetic materials on the environment has led to the development of eco-friendly materials. The researchers have shown a lot of interest in developing such materials which can replace the synthetic materials.
USDA Crop Fiber Research Collection
The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least pages and offers a unique publication. This 2nd volume of the Handbook is solely focused on the Design and Manufacturing of renewable materials.
Sfiligoj Smole, S. Hribernik, K. Stana Kleinschek and T. Advances in Agrophysical Research.
Containing 50, reference cards, thousands of reprints, manuscript materials, photographs, and specimens, the collection is particularly vital to research interests and projects involving the use of natural fibers. The collection spans the years to with the bulk of the collection dating from to It occupies boxes and linear feet of shelf space. Materials are in good condition.
Fast-growing, sustainable and easy on the environment. It had 14 plastic panels that the designer, Lowell E. With the onset of World War II, auto production was suspended as the automotive industry turned its attention to supplying military vehicles. There was no time for experimental cars, only Jeeps, tanks and transport trucks. Henry Ford died in , and no one at his namesake company took up the green mantle. But the idea of using natural fibers has been revived as a way to reduce weight and increase fuel economy with inexpensive, environmentally friendly materials.
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