Space manufacturing chemical current sources
Their new battery prototype packs about 3, milliwatt-hours of energy per gram, which is more than in any other nuclear battery based on nickel, and 10 times more than the specific energy of commercial chemical cells. The paper was published in the journal Diamond and Related Materials. Ordinary batteries powering clocks, flashlights, toys, and other electrical devices use the energy of so-called redox chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one electrode to another via an electrolyte. This gives rise to a potential difference between the electrodes. If the two battery terminals are then connected by a conductor, electrons start flowing to remove the potential difference, generating an electric current. Chemical batteries, also known as galvanic cells, are characterized by a high power density —that is, the ratio between the power of the generated current and the volume of the battery.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Reactions - Chemistry - FuseSchool
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- UK Manufacturing Statistics
- The chemistry of cosmetics
- Prototype nuclear battery packs 10 times more power
- These 5 industries will be first to do business in space
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- The chemical industry
- The search for new geologic sources of lithium could power a clean future
- Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities
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How does gravity affect chemistry and biology? In the modern era of space exploration we have all become familiar with weightless astronauts floating around or doing acrobatics, but there are many effects of microgravity still unknown. Microgravity impacts how materials behave, how chemical reactions progress and how biology functions.
These questions may seem of most interest to fringe groups who are already talking about space colonisation, including entrepreneurs like Elon Musk. There is even already a space nation, claiming a global membership of ,00 people, who have declared their satellite, Asgardia-1, a sovereign state. But for terrestrially bound scientists, microgravity can also provide a unique environment for understanding the fundamental properties of matter.
Without gravity, things sometimes behave unexpectedly and this knowledge can help spark innovations on earth. There are a number of ways to create temporary microgravity environments here on Earth using free-fall conditions — where no other forces are acting against gravity. First launched in , the 73m long station is now a hub for microgravity research. However, those on board still experience microgravity as the station is in freefall — constantly falling towards Earth — but moving at a speed of 17,mph 28,kph so staying in orbit..
One of the earliest chemical reactions investigated on the ISS was the combustion of fuels. Figuring out how a candle burns in space may seem frivolous — or even dangerous — but combustion is vitally important for propelling spacecraft. In gravity, combustion is driven by convection — gravity pulls down colder denser air to the base of the flame and hot gases rise, feeding fresh oxygen into the reaction.
This changes the shape of the flame so it is no longer a teardrop. He adds that because of the slower diffusion of oxygen, combustion can be weaker, but sometimes more persistent. Stocker is working on the ongoing Acme project advanced combustion via microgravity experiments , and current experiments are looking at the impact of electric fields, particularly on soot formation — the amount of carbon and organics produced due to insufficient oxygen reaching the reaction.
Without convection, scientists can follow how charged ions produced in combustion will respond to a powerful electric field, applied via a copper mesh at 10,V in an artificial air environment.
Experimenting in the absence of convection currents was also attractive to artificial photosynthesis researcher Katharina Brinkert at the California Institute of Technology in the US. She figured that her solar photoelectrochemical water-splitting cell would be ideal for generating oxygen or fuel, or removing carbon dioxide on long-haul space missions, where sunlight is still abundant.
But Brinkert also realised that experimenting in microgravity might provide ideas for making her cells work more efficiently on earth. Brinkert looked at the half-cell process of hydrogen evolution from her cell, which consisted of a p-type indium phosphite semiconductor beneath a rhodium electrocatalyst layer in a perchloric acid electrolyte.
This evacuated tower is m tall and objects dropped within it experience 4. Brinkert used the catapult mode which flings the experiment to the top of the tower before dropping, which extends the period of microgravity to 9.
The cell was placed inside a capsule with a light source so that the generated photocurrent could be recorded during those precious 9. What she found was that in microgravity the photocurrent was immediately halved. The solution devised by Brinkert and colleagues was to design a new electrode surface. As well as providing potential future energy sources for space exploration, using microgravity has helped shed light on design flaws for terrestrial devices that would not be as apparent in normal experiments.
In some fields, microgravity provides a way of removing the kinetic factors that interfere with reaching a thermodynamic equilibrium. This is the case with the self-assembly of colloids investigated by Furst on the ISS. The spheres were surface-functionalised with magnetite. Furst also found another unusual effect that is only seen in microgravity. When the magnetic field was turned off, the freely suspended particle columns begin to buckle due to an expansion effect.
According to metallurgist Martin Glicksman from the Florida Institute of Technology in the US, in Nasa had decided that microgravity might be the ideal place for manufacturing better materials. One idea, he says was to manufacture perfect ball-bearings in space by solidifying the perfect liquid metal spheres that would form. The dendritic, branch-like growth seen in most crystallisation scuppered the idea, but Glicksman says, it led to a programme of research into crystallisation in microgravity that continues today.
He became focused on small crystallites that separated from the melting crystal. He wondered how this effect was related to dendritic crystals growth, including the growth of snowflakes. But Glicksman began to question this and with several colleagues developed a model to explain these microgravity results using a new thermodynamic field, which he calls the bias field. In the case of crystals, the field modifies the melting point very slightly along the interface and this is responsible for the induction of complex melting and crystal growth patterns.
In gravity these effects are unlikely to have been observed, even though they explain some very fundamental material properties. Microgravity can help us understanding the physical world, but what are its effects on biology?
We know muscle and bone density decrease in microgravity and many people will think about past astronauts being carried out of landing-pods, unable to walk due to problems maintaining blood pressure after periods spent in microgravity although now usually unnecessary due to strict exercise regimes. Astronauts such as Kate Rubins pictured here can perform a variety of experiments on the ISS to discover more about how things work in microgravity. But not all life responds to microgravity in the same way.
That basically manifests itself, depending upon the species, as increased or decreased growth. As might be expected, changes occurring in gene expression recently identified are found in the genes that control metabolism and the biochemical pathways that give us energy.
But there has always been a question mark as to whether biological changes to astronauts in microgravity are caused by a lack of gravity or just a lack of activity. To test this Szewczyk worked with a Japanese team on the ISS to compare how worms respond to inactivity and microgravity. This means the worms are unable to move and so the effects of microgravity alone can be isolated.
Worms taken to the ISS are returned to earth frozen, where their gene and protein expression can be compared. Relative to those grown on earth, they found worms grown in microgravity had decreased expression levels for genes responsible for muscle filaments, as well as cytoskeletal elements and mitochondrial metabolic enzymes.
So microgravity does seem to weaken cytoskeletal networks, muscle proteins and seems to switch the metabolism to an energy-saving mode. Epigenetics — the way environmental factors change gene behaviour — may provide answers to exactly what changes occur to life in mirogravity.
Epigenetics works through DNA methylation and histone modification, which provides a mechanism for silencing or turning on genes. A team from Hiroshima University in Japan led by Louis Yuge have tried to probe the epigenetc changes that lead to muscle loss in the absence of gravity. Yuge looked at levels of expression of a gene called Myod1 which regulates differentiation of muscle cells. Expression levels were significantly lower in microgravity and the effect could be replicated in gravity when cells were treated with a drug that blocked DNA methylation.
So this strongly suggests muscle depletion in microgravity is linked to changes in DNA methylation. Clearly microgravity has a physiological effect on humans and other lifeforms — but what are the causes on a molecular level?
How do cells detect gravity? Something must be causing epigenetic changes to occur; there must be a mechanism. Understanding how microgravity affects living things will be crucial for future human spaceflight. There is some evidence that ion channels can be sensitive to gravity. These gate proteins allow molecules through the membrane and in E. Cell membranes are composed of a phospholipid bi-layer that have a hydrophilic phosphate head and a hydrophobic tail consisting of two fatty acid chains.
Kohn decided to look at how gravity changed the fluidity or viscosity of the membrane in cells and in empty artificial membranes.
He used both parabolic flights and sounding rockets, providing 22 seconds and 6 minutes of microgravity respectively. Is the [membrane] diameter changing or is the distance between the molecules changing? One interesting consequence of this is the effect of pharmaceuticals on human physiology in microgravity. There are many things we can still learn from and about microgravity and it seems likely that research will continue in preparation for more space exploration.
Humans have not evolved to live in microgravity and we are only just beginning to understand the changes it can cause. James Mitchell Crow explores the next generation of therapeutic biomaterials, which aim to interact dynamically with the body and help to control diabetes and heal wounds.
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The chemistry of cosmetics
By Carolyn Gramling. May 7, at pm. The future of lithium is electrifying. Cars and trucks powered by lithium batteries rather than fossil fuels are, to many people, the future of transportation. Rechargeable lithium batteries are also crucial for storing energy produced by solar and wind power, clean energy sources that are a beacon of hope for a world worried about the rapidly changing global climate.
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Prototype nuclear battery packs 10 times more power
Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal.
These 5 industries will be first to do business in space
Construction II. Production III. Human Considerations IV. Government Activities V. Conference Summary VI.
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The chemical industry creates an immense variety of products which impinge on virtually every aspect of our lives. Figure 1 The chemical industry is one of the largest manufacturing industries in all developed and emerging countries. This is a view of the largest site in the world devoted to the industry, at Ludwigshaven in Germany. By kind permission of BASF.
Renewable energy is energy derived from natural processes that are replenished at a rate that is equal to or faster than the rate at which they are consumed. There are various forms of renewable energy, deriving directly or indirectly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. They include energy generated from solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower and ocean resources, solid biomass, biogas and liquid biofuels. Biomass, however, is a renewable resource only if its rate of consumption does not exceed its rate of regeneration. A wide range of energy-producing technologies and equipment have been developed over time to take advantage of these natural resources. As a result, usable energy can be produced in the form of electricity, industrial heat, thermal energy for space and water conditioning, and transportation fuels.
The chemical industry
The gauge for rating the efficiency of rocket propellants is specific impulse , stated in seconds. Specific impulse indicates how many pounds or kilograms of thrust are obtained by the consumption of one pound or kilogram of propellant in one second. Specific impulse is characteristic of the type of propellant, however, its exact value will vary to some extent with the operating conditions and design of the rocket engine. Liquid Propellants. In a liquid propellant rocket, the fuel and oxidizer are stored in separate tanks, and are fed through a system of pipes, valves, and turbopumps to a combustion chamber where they are combined and burned to produce thrust. Liquid propellant engines are more complex than their solid propellant counterparts, however, they offer several advantages.
Here is a brief description of major types of engineering programs found at many universities. Check with the school that you wish to attend to see if they have a specific program that fits your interest. Aerospace engineers design, analyze, model, simulate, and test aircraft, spacecraft, satellites, missiles, and rockets.
The search for new geologic sources of lithium could power a clean future
There are thousands of different cosmetic products on the market, all with differing combinations of ingredients. Cosmetics are not a modern invention. Humans have used various substances to alter their appearance or accentuate their features for at least 10, years, and possibly a lot longer.
Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities
With any comments or suggestions please contact us at info rusnano. Paper version in Russian can be ordered from publisher "Fizmatlit". Depending on the operational characteristics and the electrochemical system a set of electrodes and electrolyte used, chemical current sources CCS are divided into primary not rechargeable, galvanic cells , which usually become out-of-use after they are fully discharged, and secondary rechargeable, batteries , where the reagents are recovered when charging by passing current from an external source.
Мотор кашлянул и захлебнулся. - El anillo. Кольцо, - совсем близко прозвучал голос. Беккер поднял глаза и увидел наведенный на него ствол. Барабан повернулся. Он снова с силой пнул ногой педаль стартера.
Стратмор разработал план… и план этот Фонтейн не имел ни малейшего намерения срывать. ГЛАВА 75 Пальцы Стратмора время от времени касались беретты, лежавшей у него на коленях. При мысли о том, что Хейл позволил себе прикоснуться к Сьюзан, кровь закипела в его жилах, но он помнил, что должен сохранять ясную голову, Стратмор с горечью признал, что сам отчасти виноват в случившемся: ведь именно он направил Сьюзан в Третий узел. Однако он умел анализировать свои эмоции и не собирался позволить им отразиться на решении проблемы Цифровой крепости.