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Understanding Different Operational Modes Of Shaft Generator On Ships
Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting of an electric motor or engine turning a propeller , or less frequently, in pump-jets , an impeller.
Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the engineering design process of marine propulsion systems. Manpower, in the form of paddles, and sail were the first forms of marine propulsion. Rowed galleys , some equipped with sail, also played an important early role.
The first advanced mechanical means of marine propulsion was the marine steam engine , introduced in the early 19th century.
During the 20th century it was replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines , outboard motors, and gas turbine engines on faster ships. Marine nuclear reactors , which appeared in the s, produce steam to propel warships and icebreakers ; commercial application, attempted late that decade, failed to catch on. Electric motors using electric battery storage have been used for propulsion on submarines and electric boats and have been proposed for energy-efficient propulsion.
Development in liquefied natural gas LNG fueled engines are gaining recognition for their low emissions and cost advantages. Stirling engines , which are quieter, smoother running, propel a number of small submarines in order to run as quietly as possible. Its design is not used in civilian marine application due to lower total efficiency than internal combustion engines or power turbines.
Until the application of the coal-fired steam engine to ships in the early 19th century, oars or the wind were the principal means of watercraft propulsion. Merchant ships predominantly used sail, but during periods when naval warfare depended on ships closing to ram or to fight hand-to-hand, galley were preferred for their manoeuvrability and speed. The development of naval gunnery from the 16th century onward vaulted broadside weight ahead of manoeuvrability; this led to the dominance of the sail-powered warship over the following three centuries.
In modern times, human propulsion is found mainly on small boats or as auxiliary propulsion on sailboats. Human propulsion includes the push pole, rowing, and pedals. Propulsion by sail generally consists of a sail hoisted on an erect mast, supported by stays , and controlled by lines made of rope. Sails were the dominant form of commercial propulsion until the late nineteenth century, and continued to be used well into the twentieth century on routes where wind was assured and coal was not available, such as in the South American nitrate trade.
The development of piston-engined steamships was a complex process. Early steamships were fueled by wood, later ones by coal or fuel oil. Early ships used stern or side paddle wheels , which gave way to screw propellers. Steam propulsion progressed considerably over the rest of the 19th century. Notable developments include the steam surface condenser , which eliminated the use of sea water in the ship's boilers.
This, along with improvements in boiler technology, permitted higher steam pressures, and thus the use of higher efficiency multiple expansion compound engines. As the means of transmitting the engine's power, paddle wheels gave way to more efficient screw propellers.
Multiple expansion steam engines became widespread in the late 19th century. These engines exhausted steam from a high pressure cylinder to a lower pressure cylinder, giving a large increase in efficiency.
Steam turbines were fueled by coal or, later, fuel oil or nuclear power. The marine steam turbine developed by Sir Charles Algernon Parsons  raised the power-to-weight ratio. This facilitated a generation of high-speed liners in the first half of the 20th century, and rendered the reciprocating steam engine obsolete; first in warships, and later in merchant vessels. In the early 20th century, heavy fuel oil came into more general use and began to replace coal as the fuel of choice in steamships.
Its great advantages were convenience, reduced manpower by removal of the need for trimmers and stokers, and reduced space needed for fuel bunkers. In the second half of the 20th century, rising fuel costs almost led to the demise of the steam turbine. Most new ships since around have been built with diesel engines. The last major passenger ship built with steam turbines was Fairsky , launched in Similarly, many steam ships were re-engined to improve fuel efficiency. One high-profile example was the built Queen Elizabeth 2 which had her steam turbines replaced with a diesel-electric propulsion plant in Most new-build ships with steam turbines are specialist vessels such as nuclear-powered vessels, and certain merchant vessels notably Liquefied Natural Gas LNG and coal carriers where the cargo can be used as bunker fuel.
New LNG carriers a high growth area of shipping continue to be built with steam turbines. The natural gas is stored in a liquid state in cryogenic vessels aboard these ships, and a small amount of 'boil off' gas is needed to be constantly withdrawn in order to maintain the pressure and temperature inside the vessels within operating limits.
The 'boil off' gas provides the fuel for the ship's boilers, which further provide steam for the turbines, the simplest way to deal with the excessive 'boil off' gas. However, technology to operate internal combustion engines modified marine two-stroke diesel engines on this gas has improved, and such engines are starting to appear in LNG carriers.
Also constantly improving tank designs allow reaching greater thermal efficiency, therefore less 'boil off' naturally occurs. Developments have also been made in the process of re-liquifying 'boil off' gas, letting it be returned to the cryogenic tanks as a liquid.
The financial returns on LNG are potentially greater than the cost of the marine-grade fuel oil burnt in conventional diesel engines, so the re-liquefaction process is starting to be used on diesel engine propelled LNG carriers. Another factor driving the change from turbines to diesel engines for LNG carriers is the shortage of steam turbine qualified seagoing engineers.
With the lack of turbine powered ships in other shipping sectors, and the rapid rise in size of the worldwide LNG fleet, not enough have been trained to meet the demand. It may be that the days are numbered for marine steam turbine propulsion systems, even though all but sixteen of the orders for new LNG carriers at the end of were for steam turbine propelled ships.
In these vessels, the nuclear reactor heats water to create steam to drive the turbines. When first developed, very low prices of diesel oil limited nuclear propulsion's commercial attraction.
The advantages of its fuel-price security, greater safety and low emissions were unable to overcome the higher initial costs of a nuclear power plant. In , nuclear propulsion is rare except in some Navy and specialist vessels such as icebreakers.
In large aircraft carriers , the space formerly used for ship's bunkerage is used instead to bunker aviation fuel. In submarines , the ability to run submerged at high speed and in relative quiet for long periods holds obvious advantages. A few naval cruisers have also employed nuclear power; as of , the only ones remaining in service are the Russian Kirov class. In an ice-breaker, an advantage is fuel security and safety in demanding arctic conditions.
The Savannah also suffered from an inefficient design, being partly for passengers and partly for cargo. In recent times, there is some renewed interest in commercial nuclear shipping. Fuel oil prices are now much higher. Nuclear-powered cargo ships could lower costs associated with carbon dioxide emissions and travel at higher cruise speeds than conventional diesel powered vessels. Most modern ships use a reciprocating diesel engine as their prime mover, due to their operating simplicity, robustness and fuel economy compared to most other prime mover mechanisms.
The rotating crankshaft can be directly coupled to the propeller with slow speed engines, via a reduction gearbox for medium and high speed engines, or via an alternator and electric motor in diesel-electric vessels. The rotation of the crankshaft is connected to the camshaft or a hydraulic pump on an intelligent diesel.
The reciprocating marine diesel engine first came into use in when the diesel electric rivertanker Vandal was put into service by Branobel. Diesel engines soon offered greater efficiency than the steam turbine, but for many years had an inferior power-to-space ratio.
The advent of turbocharging however hastened their adoption, by permitting greater power densities. Most modern larger merchant ships use either slow speed, two stroke, crosshead engines, or medium speed, four stroke, trunk engines.
Some smaller vessels may use high speed diesel engines. The size of the different types of engines is an important factor in selecting what will be installed in a new ship. Slow speed two-stroke engines are much taller, but the footprint required is smaller than that needed for equivalently rated four-stroke medium speed diesel engines. As space above the waterline is at a premium in passenger ships and ferries especially ones with a car deck , these ships tend to use multiple medium speed engines resulting in a longer, lower engine room than that needed for two-stroke diesel engines.
Multiple engine installations also give redundancy in the event of mechanical failure of one or more engines, and the potential for greater efficiency over a wider range of operating conditions. As modern ships' propellers are at their most efficient at the operating speed of most slow speed diesel engines, ships with these engines do not generally need gearboxes.
Usually such propulsion systems consist of either one or two propeller shafts each with its own direct drive engine. Ships propelled by medium or high speed diesel engines may have one or two sometimes more propellers, commonly with one or more engines driving each propeller shaft through a gearbox.
Where more than one engine is geared to a single shaft, each engine will most likely drive through a clutch, allowing engines not being used to be disconnected from the gearbox while others keep running. This arrangement lets maintenance be carried out while under way, even far from port. Dual fuel engines are fueled by either marine grade diesel, heavy fuel oil, or liquefied natural gas LNG. A Marine LNG Engine has multiple fuel options, allowing vessels to transit without relying on one type of fuel.
Studies show that LNG is the most efficient of fuels, although limited access to LNG fueling stations limits the production of such engines. Vessels providing services in the LNG industry have been retrofitted with dual-fuel engines, and have been proved to be extremely effective.
Benefits of dual-fuel engines include fuel and operational flexibility, high efficiency, low emissions, and operational cost advantages. Liquefied natural gas engines offer the marine transportation industry with an environmentally friendly alternative to provide power to vessels. In , STX Finland and Viking Line signed an agreement to begin construction on what would be the largest environmentally friendly cruise ferry.
Construction of NB will be completed in According to Viking Line, vessel NB will primarily be fueled by liquefied natural gas.
Company profits from tax cuts and operational cost advantages has led to the gradual growth of LNG fuel use in engines. Many warships built since the s have used gas turbines for propulsion, as have a few passenger ships, like the jetfoil. Gas turbines are commonly used in combination with other types of engine. Because of their poor thermal efficiency at low power cruising output, it is common for ships using them to have diesel engines for cruising, with gas turbines reserved for when higher speeds are needed.
However, in the case of passenger ships the main reason for installing gas turbines has been to allow a reduction of emissions in sensitive environmental areas or while in port. In such combined cycles, thermal efficiency can be the same or slightly greater than that of diesel engines alone; however, the grade of fuel needed for these gas turbines is far more costly than that needed for the diesel engines, so the running costs are still higher.
Since the late s, Swedish shipbuilder Kockums has built a number of successful Stirling engine powered submarines. The heat sink of a Stirling engine is typically the ambient air temperature. In the case of medium to high power Stirling engines, a radiator is generally required to transfer the heat from the engine to the ambient air.
Stirling marine engines have the advantage of using the ambient temperature water. Placing the cooling radiator section in seawater rather than ambient air allows for the radiator to be smaller. The engine's cooling water may be used directly or indirectly for heating and cooling purposes of the ship.
Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting of an electric motor or engine turning a propeller , or less frequently, in pump-jets , an impeller. Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the engineering design process of marine propulsion systems. Manpower, in the form of paddles, and sail were the first forms of marine propulsion.
Из Испании опять пришли плохие новости - не от Дэвида Беккера, а от других, которых он послал в Севилью. В трех тысячах миль от Вашингтона мини-автобус мобильного наблюдения мчался по пустым улицам Севильи. Он был позаимствован АНБ на военной базе Рота в обстановке чрезвычайной секретности. Двое сидевших в нем людей были напряжены до предела: они не в первый раз получали чрезвычайный приказ из Форт-Мида, но обычно эти приказы не приходили с самого верха.
Агент, сидевший за рулем, повернув голову, бросил через плечо: - Есть какие-нибудь следы нашего человека. Глаза его партнера не отрывались от картинки на большом мониторе, установленном под крышей мини-автобуса. - Никаких.
Извините, что пришлось вас разбудить. Почему я звоню. Я только что выяснил, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ устарел. Все дело в алгоритме, сочинить который оказалось не под силу нашим лучшим криптографам! - Стратмор стукнул кулаком по столу.
Но уж определенно не здесь! - Он улыбнулся.
А ведь еще вчера она думала, что потеряла его навсегда. - Дэвид, - вздохнула она, заметив на тумбочке его записку. - Скажи мне, что такое без воска. Ты же знаешь, что шифры, которые не поддаются, не выходят у меня из головы.
- Обнажился второй щит. - Нужно приступать к отключению, - настаивал Джабба. - Судя по ВР, у нас остается около сорока пяти минут.
Именно здесь вирус мог бы причинить наибольший ущерб, и именно здесь Джабба проводил большую часть времени. Однако в данный момент у него был перерыв и он поглощал пирог с сыром и перцем в круглосуточной столовой АНБ. Джабба собирался взять третий кусок, когда зазвонил мобильный телефон. - Говорите, - сказал он, быстро проглотив пирог. - Джабба, - проворковала женщина в ответ.
Знать ничего не знаю. - Не знаю, о ком вы говорите, - поправил его Беккер, подзывая проходившую мимо официантку.
Он купил две бутылки пива и протянул одну Двухцветному. Панк изумленно взглянул на бутылку, потом отпил изрядный глоток и тупо уставился на Беккера. - Чего вы от меня хотите, мистер.
Единственным освещением в шифровалке был разве что свет звезд над их головами, едва уловимое свечение проникало также сквозь разбитую стеклянную стену Третьего узла.
Стратмор шагнул вперед, нащупывая ногой место, где начинались ступеньки узенькой лестницы. Переложив берет-ту в левую руку, правой он взялся за перила. Он прекрасно знал, что левой рукой стрелял так же плохо, как и правой, к тому же правая рука была ему нужна, чтобы поддерживать равновесие.
Коммандер не спешил с ответом: - Автор алгоритма - частное лицо. - Как же так? - Сьюзан откинулась на спинку стула. - У нас внизу работают лучшие программисты в мире.
Чед Бринкерхофф, - представился. - Личный помощник директора. Сьюзан сумела лишь невнятно прошептать: - ТРАНС… Бринкерхофф кивнул.
Но в них была только смерть.
Телефонный звонок окончательно прогнал сон. Сьюзан Флетчер вздохнула, села в кровати и потянулась к трубке. - Алло. - Сьюзан, это Дэвид. Я тебя разбудил.
Его глушитель, самый лучший из тех, какие только можно было купить, издавал легкий, похожий на покашливание, звук. Все будет прекрасно. Приближаясь к пиджаку защитного цвета, он не обращал внимания на сердитый шепот людей, которых обгонял. Прихожане могли понять нетерпение этого человека, стремившегося получить благословение, но ведь существуют строгие правила протокола: подходить к причастию нужно, выстроившись в две линии. Халохот продолжал двигаться .
Скажите, что вы от. Попросите его передать паспорт Росио. Росио сопровождает мистера Густафсона сегодня вечером.