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The company built upon several predecessor companies efforts to construct a canal used for hydraulic mill power. The purchase also included the water rights from above the upper rapids to below the Falls. In , Caleb Smith Woodhull and his associates purchased the land and the water rights from the heirs of the Porter brothers with the intention to build a canal, and in formed the " Niagara Falls Hydraulic Company. In , Stephen N.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Lochay Power Station Hydro Generator Refurbishment
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- US9765647B2 - Hydroelectric turbine recovery system and a method therefor - Google Patents
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- US8405236B2 - Brushless DC turbo-hydro electric generator - Google Patents
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- US20120007364A1 - Brushless DC turbo-hydro electric generator - Google Patents
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Benefits of variable speed pumped storage units in mixed islanded power network during transient operation Francois Avellan.
Benefits of variable speed pumped storage units in mixed islanded power network during transient operation. Nicolet Y. Pannatier B. Kawkabani A. Schwery F. Avellan J. First, the modeling of each power plant is fully described. The MW wind farm is modeled through an equivalent machine approach of wind turbines of 2MW. The wind farm model comprises a stochastic model of wind evolution with wind gust, a power coefficient based model of wind turbine with a-priori controller and a synchronous generator with voltage regulator.
Finally, the MW pumped storage power plant model comprises the upstream reservoir, a meters gallery, a surge tank, the meters long penstock feeding a variable speed unit pump-turbine connected to the downstream tank through a meters long tailrace water tunnel.
The 3 power plants are connected to a passive consumer load via a KV electrical line network. Then, the capability of the pumped storage plant to stabilize the islanded power network is investigated through the time domain simulation of the dynamic behavior of the entire mixed power network using the software SIMSEN.
Three different scenarios are considered: i partial load rejection enabled by flywheel effect in generating mode, ii load acceptance step enabled by flywheel effect in pumping mode, iii wind power fluctuations are compensated by pump power adjustment through rotational speed variation.
The simulation results obtained with variable speed unit are compared with simulation results obtained with same pumped storage power plant but equipped with three-machine-type unit with fixed speed synchronous generator. Safe and stable operation for the 3 above mentioned scenarios are presented and comparison between fixed speed and variable speed results are discussed.
Introduction As wind energy is highly volatile energy source, islanded power networks featuring high level of wind power penetration are subjected to undesired perturbation jeopardizing the power network stability .
Consequently, pumped storage plants can significantly improve the stability of mixed islanded power network due to their production flexibility. The high dynamic performances of such pumped storage plants are of highest interest for improving stability of mixed islanded power network. Variable speed pump-turbine units have become nowadays major partner to increase stability of electrical power networks due to their high level of operating flexibility, , , .
Indeed, variable speed pump-turbine units offer several advantages for both pumping and generating modes such as: i possibility of active power control in pumping mode, ii efficiency increase and wide range of operation in generating mode especially under partial load, iii network stability improvement by reactive power control and iv network stability improvement by instantaneous active power injection in the grid flywheel effect.
Extended operating range in pump mode and higher efficiency in turbine mode achievable with variable speed units are illustrated in Figure 1. Three-machine-type units, with turbine, generator, fluid coupling clutch and pump, offer also numbers of operation advantages despite a higher investment cost compared to variable speed pump-turbine.
Figure 1 Advantages of variable speed machines compared to fixed speed machines for pump left and turbine right mode of operation. The 3 power plants are connected to a passive consumer load via a KV electrical line network as presented in Figure 2. For the hydraulic power plant, two different technical solutions are considered: - reversible pump-turbine with variable speed unit comprising a Doubly Fed Asynchronous Motor-Generator DFIG equipped with a back-to-back VSI Voltage Source Inverter cascade; - three-machine-type unit with fixed speed synchronous motor-generator.
Three different scenarios are considered: i partial load rejection in turbine mode, ii load acceptance step in pumping mode, iii wind power fluctuations compensation in pumping mode. The simulation results obtained with variable speed unit are compared with simulation results obtained with fixed speed three-machine-type unit. Figure 2 Mixed islanded power network. This approach leads to a system of ordinary differential equations that can be represented as a T-shaped equivalent scheme , ,  as presented in Figure 4.
The hydraulic resistance R, the hydraulic inductance L, and the hydraulic capacitance C correspond respectively to energy losses, inertia and storage effects. The model of a pipe of length L is made of a series of nb elements based on the equivalent scheme of Figure 4.
The system of equations relative to this model is set-up using Kirchoff laws. The model of the pipe, as well as the model of valve, surge tank, Francis turbine, etc, is implemented in the EPFL software SIMSEN, developed for the simulation of the dynamic behavior of hydroelectric power plants, , . Figure 3 Elementary hydraulic pipe of Figure 4 Equivalent circuit of an elementary pipe of length dx. As presented in Table 7 of Appendix 2, the modeling approach based on equivalent schemes of hydraulic components is extended to all the standard hydraulic components such as valve, surge tanks, air vessels, cavitation development, Francis pump-turbines, Pelton turbines, Kaplan turbines, pump, etc, see .
For the power house, two different solutions are compared: - three-machine-type arrangement with fixed speed synchronous generator of MVA; - reversible pump-turbine with variable speed VarSpeed doubly fed induction generator DFIG of MVA. Table 1 gives the main characteristics of the pumped-storage power plant used for both fixed and variable speed solutions. The models of the two solutions are presented in the two sub-chapters below. For both models, the hydraulic machines are modeled using their 4 quadrants characteristics.
The model of the piping system accounts for detailed water-hammer and mass oscillation phenomena, . Table 1 Pumped-storage power plant characteristics.
This model is composed of a Francis turbine of MW, the synchronous generator of MVA, a pump of MW and a clutch between the generator and the pump. The clutch characteristic is taken from . The model of the generator is based on 1 equivalent rotor circuit in the direct-axis and 1 equivalent rotor circuit in the quadrature-axis allowing taking into account a sub-transient behavior, see . Figure 5 Pumped storage power plant model with fixed speed and 3 machine-type arrangement.
Figure 6 Pumped storage power plant model with variable speed pump-turbine. The same hydraulic layout is considered except for the hydraulic machine which is replaced by a reversible pump-turbine of MW. The pump-turbine is driven using a speed optimizer which defines optimum speed in turbine mode and optimum guide vane opening in pump mode according to power and net head operating conditions, see , , .
The electrical system comprises a doubly fed induction motor-generator with 2 level VSI Voltage Source Inverter cascade in the rotor side. The model of the induction machine is based on classical d, q Park equations expressed in a, b, c quantities. This electrical system can be divided into two sections, a transformer section and a machine section, see Figure 6.
The transformer section operates as a Static Var Compensator SVC , its main role being to exchange reactive power with the grid.
The reactive power and the capacitors voltage are controlled by acting on the transformer primary side currents through the right-side converter. The main role of the machine section is to control the active power of the machine. The active power and the stator reactive power of the machine are controlled by acting on the rotor currents through the left-side converter.
The control structure of the transformer and machine sections are presented in Figure 7. As this hydropower plant is operating in islanded power network, a special care has been paid to set up the active power control structure in order to have fast response of the variable speed unit to network disturbances.
This approach is particularly relevant for small power networks with small number of producers and consumers where the hydropower plant has a significant power output compared to the total power. Thermal Power Plant Model The model of the 1. The shaft line comprises 4 rotating inertias connected by 3 shafts with given stiffness and damping.
And finally a turbo generator with 2 pairs of poles is also included in the model with the ABB Unitrol voltage regulator. The parameters of the model are given in Table 2 and details of the model can be found in . Figure 8 Thermal power plant model.
Table 2 Thermal power plant characteristics. Wind Farm Model 5. The characteristics of the wind turbine model are given in Table 3. Figure 9 Wind turbine model. Table 3 Wind turbine characteristics. Then, the wind turbine output power is calculated from Figure 10 left, as function of the tip speed ratio as presented in Figure 10 right, see also . The blade pitch angle given as function of the tip speed ratio is also represented in Figure 10 right.
For tip speed ratio above 8, the pitch angle is selected to provide the highest power coefficient while below 8 it is selected to generate the 2 MW output power limit. Aggregated Wind Farm model For power grid stability purposes, it is possible to use an aggregated wind farm model, consisting of one wind turbine equivalent to n single wind turbines as presented in Figure 11, see . Then according to the energy conservation and in order to keep the same torsional mode eigenfrequency, the active power Pn, rotating inertias J, the shaft stiffness kshaft and the swept area Aref are multiplied by the number of wind turbines n.
The parameters of the synchronous generator being given in per unit, they are kept constant. For the present study, only one equivalent machine can be used as no electrical faults are considered . Mixed Islanded Power Network Model Figure 12 presents the full SIMSEN model of the mixed islanded power network of Figure 2 based on the hydraulic, thermal and wind power plant models described above for the variable speed pump-turbine solution.
The model also includes the kV transmission lines and the passive consumer load. Transient Behavior of Mixed Islanded Power Network Three different cases studies are considered for the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the mixed islanded power network of Figure - load rejection in turbine mode, - load acceptance in pumping mode, - wind power fluctuations compensation by pump power adjustment.
The scenarios and simulation results related to the three cases studies stated above are described in the following subchapters. For simplicity, the pump-turbine speed optimizer of the variable speed solution has not been taken into consideration for these simulations. This only modifies initial and final steady-state operating rotational speed but does not affect transient behavior of the variable speed unit.
The initial conditions of the power flow of the islanded power network are summarized in Table 4. The difference between the production and consumption corresponds to the energy losses in transmission lines and transformers. Table 4 Initial power flow.
It can be seen that the variable speed machine is reducing almost instantaneously the generator output power and compensates the load rejection in less than 0. The very fast response of the variable speed unit is enabled by the flywheel effect visible on the pump- turbine parameters evolution.
Indeed, the fast variation of the generator output power induces a rotational speed increase and the extra pump-turbine output power is stored into kinetic energy of the rotating inertias . This speed change is not problematic as the generator is a variable speed machine.
Then the turbine speed governor changes the guide vane opening in order to recover the rotational speed set point. Regarding the simulation results obtained with the fixed speed solution, one may notice that the first seconds after the load rejection, the main contribution to the power network stability is provided by the thermal power plant enabled by the steam pressure tank reserves. However, if thermal power plant can provide power output variation during the first seconds, the output power set point of such power plant cannot be adapted very fast as it is restricted by the thermal power generation process controllability.
Therefore, this is the hydropower plant which reduces its output power through the turbine speed governor action on the guide vane opening.
Figure 14 presents the comparison between the power network frequency obtained with variable speed and fixed speed solutions on the left and of the consumer load voltage on the right.
US9765647B2 - Hydroelectric turbine recovery system and a method therefor - Google Patents
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Recent Developments of Electrical Drives is composed of the papers which cover a wide spectrum of theory and practice, thus they are deeply rooted in engineering problems, being simultaneously of high theoretical level. This way the contents touches the heart of the matter in electrical drives theory, control systems and applications. The book, stating the recent developments of electrical drives, can be useful for engineers and researchers investigating and designing electrical and electronic devices as well as for students and young researchers dealing with electrical and electronic engineering, computer sciences advanced computer modelling, sophisticated control systems with artificial intelligence tools applied, optimal design bye use of classical and genetic algorithms employed , applied mathematics and all the topics where electromagnetic, thermal, mechanical phenomena occur. Recent Developments of Electrical Drives covers a wide range of interests of industry engineers, and scientists involved in modelling, control, measurements, new motor structures design, and could be also useful for engineers working in the field of electrical drives implementation.
Technical Committee Sessions: EDPG, EMC, PEEC
The invention relates to a marine current power installation, in particular, a marine current power installation which uses energy from the tidal ebb and flow of marine currents which constantly occur in the oceans, rivers, and lakes. About As the population of our planet approaches seven billion, there is an increasing demand for greater amounts of electrical power and a need to minimize pollution of the environment caused by generating said electrical power. None of the above inventions and patents, taken either singly or in combination, is seen to describe the present invention as claimed. It is an object of the present invention to implement an apparatus for a Brushless DC turbo-hydro electric generator that overcomes some of the disadvantages of the prior art. There is a need, therefore, for an efficient brushless DC turbo-hydro electric generator, which can harness tidal energy with a minimal environmental impact. The energy produced should be dependable, limitless, and free of greenhouse gases. The science involved with the creation of electricity is basic. When a conductive wire is passed through a magnetic field, electrical current is induced in the wire. It should be noted that an electric motor may function as an electric generator and visa-versa.
US8405236B2 - Brushless DC turbo-hydro electric generator - Google Patents
Repair work starts at Toddbrook reservoir, UK 07 January Work has started on a project to repair and enhance the resilience of Tina River project construction set to start next year 19 December A landmark financing agreement has been completed for the 15MW Tina Fifth modernized unit in operation at Iron Gate Djerdap 1, Serbia 18 December The fifth hydraulic unit modernized by equipment manufacturer Power Dam removal project begins in the US 17 December The first phase of a project to remove an year-old high-hazard dam
Back to My Account. Learn about our solutions with electrical machinery, automation and energy systems for industry and find out how our business are interconnected to improve your business. WEG continually develops its range of electric motors and frequency inverters for electric traction, joining efficiency and quality.
Recent Developments of Electrical Drives
Selected reports on selected industries. United States. Bureau of the Census. Paints and varnishes Specialization in manufacture.
US20120007364A1 - Brushless DC turbo-hydro electric generator - Google Patents
The new Digital Voltage Regulator D-Vo is an electronic microprocessor-based device which manages the operating electrical parameters of synchronous generators. Marelli Motori has designed special packages for maintenance services to take care of your machine throughout its lifecycle, while minimising the risk of a production failure and so guaranteeing overall peace of mind. A group of children aged between 7 and 10 years from Belarus, who suffer the effects of low-level Two new hydro generators will soon be on-route from our factory in Arzignano, Italy, to Bad Ems in Langley Holdings, the diverse engineering and industrial group, has acquired Marelli Motori, the
The present invention relates to a hydroelectric turbine recovery system, and in particular a system that significantly reduces the complexity of recovering a base mounted hydroelectric turbine from a deployment site on the seabed or the like. Due to the environmental damage that has been inflicted on the planet as a result of the burning of fossil fuels, renewable energy has finally begun to be given significant attention, with many projects being developed around solar energy, wind energy, and tidal power. Of these alternative forms of energy, tidal power is arguably the most attractive, given that tidal flows are entirely predictable and constant, unlike wind or solar energy which are relatively intermittent and therefore less dependable. However, harnessing tidal energy does provide its own challenges, in particular with respect to the installation, maintenance and retrieval of tidal power generators, for example hydro-electric turbines, which by the very nature of the operation of same must be located in relatively fast flowing tidal currents, and more than likely located on the seabed. In addition, in order to be economically viable these turbines must be built on a large scale.
Year of fee payment : 4. This Generator utilizes waters motion rotating NdFeB rotorblades within aluminum trapezoidal bars to generate electricity. The generator includes a moving magnetic field, wherein magnetic neodymium-iron-boron's embedded in turbine blades uniformly, with alternating polarity, circumferentially distributed about central axis drive shaft.
International Council for Large Electric Systems CIGRE is a non-governmental and non-profit international organization that unites scientists and specialists in the field of electric power systems established in France in Krupenin — General Director;. Varivodov — Deputy General Director.
Превозмогая шум в голове, Беккер представил себе грязные улицы Трианы, удушающую жару, безнадежные поиски в долгой нескончаемой ночи. Какого черта. Он кивнул. - Si, echame un poco de vodka. Бармен с видимым облегчением приготовил ему напиток.
Ничего себе капелька. В голове у нее стучало. Повернувшись, она увидела, как за стеной, в шифровалке, Чатрукьян что-то говорит Хейлу. Понятно, домой он так и не ушел и теперь в панике пытается что-то внушить Хейлу. Она понимала, что это больше не имеет значения: Хейл и без того знал все, что можно было знать. Мне нужно доложить об этом Стратмору, - подумала она, - и как можно скорее. ГЛАВА 38 Хейл остановился в центре комнаты и пристально посмотрел на Сьюзан.
Из-под колес взметнулся гравий. Мотоцикл начал подниматься по склону. Колеса неистово вращались на рыхлой земле. Маломощный двигатель отчаянно выл, стараясь одолеть подъем.