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Feeding the world in a sustainable way is one of our most pressing challenges in the coming decades. Meat plays a pivotal role in this. Meat is an important source of nutrition for many people around the world. Global demand for meat is growing: over the past 50 years, meat production has more than quadrupled.


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Livestock production and marketing

Feeding the world in a sustainable way is one of our most pressing challenges in the coming decades. Meat plays a pivotal role in this. Meat is an important source of nutrition for many people around the world. Global demand for meat is growing: over the past 50 years, meat production has more than quadrupled.

The world now produces more than million tonnes each year. But the production of meat has large environmental impacts — increasing greenhouse gas emissions , agricultural land and freshwater use.

Seafood production — fish and seafood is another key source of protein and nutrition for populations across the world. How much fish do people eat, and what are the environmental impacts? Diet compositions — varied diets are essential for good health and nutrition. But the quality and diversity of diets varies significantly across the world. What do people eat? Micronutrient deficiency — poor dietary diversity means many people lack the essential vitamins and minerals they need for good health.

How common is micronutrient deficiency and who is most at risk? In this entry we look in detail at land use across the world. Global meat production has increased rapidly over the past 50 years — as we see, total production has more than quadrupled since The chart shows global meat production by region, measured in tonnes.

Regionally, Asia is the largest meat producer, accounting for around percent of total meat production. This regional distribution has changed significantly in recent decades.

In , Europe and North America were the dominant meat producers, accounting for 42 and 25 percent, respectively. In , Asia produced only 12 percent. Production increases in Asia, however, have been staggering: meat production has increased fold since Absolute increases in production in other regions have also been substantial, with output in all regions with exception to the Caribbean which approximately tripled growing more than 5-fold over this period.

However, the distribution of meat types varies significantly across the world; in some countries, other meat types such as wild game, horse, and duck can account for a significant share of total production. Although production of all major meat types have been increasing in absolute terms, in relative terms the share of global meat types have changed significantly over the last 50 years.

In , poultry meat accounted for only 12 percent of global meat production; by its share has approximately tripled to around 35 percent. In comparison, beef and buffalo meat as a share of total meat production has nearly halved, now accounting for around 22 percent.

In the chart we see the global production of cattle beef and buffalo meat. Globally, cattle meat production has more than doubled since — increasing from 28 million tonnes per year to 68 million tonnes in Global production of poultry meat has increased rapidly over the last 50 years, growing more than fold between Global trends in poultry production are shown in the chart. China and Brazil are also large poultry producers at 18 and 13 million tonnes, respectively.

Collectively, Europe is also a major poultry producer with an ouput in of approximately 19 million tonnes — just below output of the United States. China dominates global output, producing just short of half of total pigmeat in Increases in Chinese pigmeat production have been rapid, growing around fold from 1.

Global population has underwent rapid growth , especially in the second half of the 20th century; we may therefore also expect the rapid growth in total meat production as explored in the sections above.

But how has meat consumption changed on a per capita basis? In the chart we see a global map of per capita meat excluding seafood and fish consumption, measured in kilograms per person per year. As a global average, per capita meat consumption has increased approximately 20 kilograms since ; the average person consumed around 43 kilograms of meat in This increase in per capita meat trends means total meat production has been growing at a much faster than the rate of population growth.

The direction and rate of change across countries has highly variable. Growth in per capita meat consumption has been most marked in countries who have underwent a strong economic transition — per capita consumption in China has grown approximately fold since ; rates in Brazil have nearly quadrupled.

The major exception to this pattern has been India: dominant lactovegetarian preferences mean per capita meat consumption in was almost exactly the same as in at less than 4 kilograms per person. Meat consumption is highest across high-income countries with the largest meat-eaters in Australia, consuming around kilograms per person in However, changes in consumption in high-income countries have been much slower — with most stagnating or even decreasing over the last 50 years.

Consumption trends across Africa are varied; some countries consume as low as 10 kilograms per person, around half of the continental average. Higher-income nations such as South Africa consume between kilograms per person.

One of the strongest determinants of how much meat people eat is how rich they are. This is at least true when we make cross-country comparisons. In the scatterplot we see the relationship between per capita meat supply on the y-axis and average GDP per capita on the x-axis. What we see is a strong positive relationship: the richer a country is, the more meat the average person typically eats. Overall, countries tend to shift upwards and to the right: getting richer and eating more meat. What preferences do we have in terms of the types of meat we eat?

Consumption trends vary significantly across the world. In China, pigmeat accounts for around two-thirds of per capita meat consumption. In Argentina, beef and buffalo meat dominates, accounting for more than half of consumption. Whilst other meat types such as wild game, horse, and rabbit meat account for a very small fraction of meat consumption at the global level, around one-quarter of meat in Gabon comes from such sources this has declined from around 70 percent in The visualization details the total number of livestock animals slaughtered for meat in the given year.

This is shown across various types of livestock. Here these figures represent the total number slaughtered for meat production which does not include those use primarily for dairy or egg production which are not eventually used for meat.

In , an estimated 62 billion chickens; 1. This is not to be confused with figures above which represent the total number of livestock animals slaughtered or used for meat in any given year. You can find data and research on fish and seafood production and consumption across the world in our entry here. This is measured in mass quantities — such as tonnes or kilograms. These sheets account for losses and allocations in the food system, including imports, exports, stock variations, seed, animal feed, other industrial uses , and food losses.

To derive the average per capita food supply, this total figure is divided by the population size. This figure can be considered to be the average level of food intake however it does not account for food wastage at the consumer level i.

Feed conversion ratio FCR is used to measure the mass quantity of feed required to produce one kilogram of animal product e. For example, on average, we have to feed cattle 25 kilograms of feed to produce one kilogram of beef or buffalo meat — this would give us an FCR value of 0. The same calculation process applies for energy conversion efficiency using caloric inputs and outputs. Environmental footprints, such as those defined as land use requirements or greenhouse gas emissions per unit mass, protein or calorie of food products are calculated using a process called life-cycle analysis LCA.

LCA methods are used to try to fully capture all environmental impacts across the value chain, and can include those up and downstream of production. This includes food chain inputs such as fertilizer production and application, seed production, energy use on-farm, feed production, manure production if used as fertilizer , manure management, farm infrastructure construction. Life-cycle analyses LCAs attempt to fully quantity all such inputs necessary for the production of a food production. Summary The world now produces more than four times the quantity of meat as it did fifty years ago.

In , production was around million tonnes. Pigmeat is the most popular meat globally, but the production of poultry is increasing most rapidly. Tens of billions of chickens; billions of pigs; and hundreds of millions of sheep, goats and cattle are slaughtered each year for meat.

The average person in the world consumed around 43 kilograms of meat in This ranges from over kg in the US and Australia to only 5kg in India. Meat consumption increases as the world is getting richer. The world now produces around million tonnes of milk each year — more than double the amount fifty years ago. Richer countries tend to consume more milk per person. The amount of meat produced for a given animal varies significantly across the world based on production systems.

Livestock production has large environmental impacts on greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. Beef and lamb have much larger environmental impact than pigmeat and poultry. Meat production by region. Click to open interactive version.

In the chart we see how meat production has changed by livestock type since Beef and buffalo cattle meat production. Poultry production. Pigmeat production. Since , global pigmeat production has grown fold to million tonnes in Global livestock numbers over the long-term.

Number of cattle. Number of poultry birds. Number of pigs. Seafood production You can find data and research on fish and seafood production and consumption across the world in our entry here. Cattle meat per animal. Poultry meat per animal.

Meat and Dairy Production

Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: May 02, Published: August 2, Citation: Wilson RT.

Climate Change - Socioeconomic Effects. Nowadays, almost all inhabitants of the Earth are affected by different health problems associated with nutrition, although their causes are in striking contrast with each other.

Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat , eggs , milk , fur , leather , and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer solely to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants , such as cattle and goats. Poultry and fish are not included in the category. The breeding, maintenance, and slaughter of livestock, known as animal husbandry , is a component of modern agriculture that has been practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles.

Impacts of Climate Change on Animal Production and Quality of Animal Food Products

It presents information on livestock and meat production in the European Union EU. However, the majority of livestock were held in just a few large Member States. One fifth The pig population is relatively cyclical. The population in was back up to that of after fluctuating at lower levels in the intervening years see Figure 1. Between and , the EU population of bovine animals grew steadily, then stabilised, and fell in The population of sheep fell relatively steadily between and , before stabilising and rebounding slightly. However, the population shrank again in After some recovery from a relative low in , the goat population declined in Beef is the meat from the slaughter of bovine animals of at least one year old.

Dairy, Veterinary & Animal Research

The livestock sector is today at the epicentre of public debates in Europe and beyond. These debates have become dominated by interest groups who only want to spread myths and radical views about livestock farming. Ever increasing on social media and in the press, these myths and opinions end up portraying a picture that is in stark contrast with the reality experienced and lived every day by thousands of European farmers and professionals working with them on the ground. These debates have strong impacts on the views of European consumers on the role of animal products in their choice of lifestyle and they push the livestock sector into an extremely defensive corner of the society. It all negatively affects the EU livestock farming model and policy framework, increasing the challenges faced by our farming communities to ensure their economic viability, generational renewal and their capacity to adapt to societal and environmental demands.

The contribution of livestock and livestock product exports to foreign exchange earnings is also large.

Archives of Veterinary Science and Medicine. Situation of Livestock, Production and its Products in Nepal. Archives of Veterinary Science and Medicine 1 :

Agricultural production - livestock and meat

All the contents of www. The Project envisages the development of a common methodology for the preparation, storage, dissemination and evaluation of scientific literature in electronic format. As the project develops, new journal titles are being added in the library collection.

There has been rapid global expansion of production and consumption of animal products which is expected to continue to grow. Increasing productivity, especially in the small to medium scale production systems, is currently constrained by lack of skills, knowledge and appropriate technologies compounded by insufficient access to markets, goods and services, and weak institutions. The result is that both production and productivity remain below potential, and losses and wastage can be high. However, adapted breeds, local feed resources and animal health interventions are available, along with improved and adapted technologies that include sound animal husbandry, on and off -farm product preservation and value-adding product processing. Together with supportive policies and institutions, they have the potential to substantially improve productivity, income generation and to make a major contribution to poverty reduction. This will be achieved through the provision of topical information, guidance and technical support to member countries.

#MeattheFacts: European Livestock Voice sets to balance the debate around livestock production

Per caput demand for livestock products In the scenario of the per caput demand the expected increase in incomes in developing countries are believed to cause a shift towards more meat, milk and eggs in the human diet, and a relative decrease in the consumption of cereals and starchy foods. In developed countries with current high consumption levels, future per caput meat consumption may not change or even decrease as incomes rise further. In many developing countries the current meat, milk and egg consumption levels are very low compared to those in developed countries and major increases in the per caput consumption of livestock products can be expected along with rising incomes. The consumption scenarios used as a basis for this study Appendix 2 were adapted from Zuidema et al. Although it is difficult to predict future consumption, certain generalizations can be made recognizing specific regional, cultural or religious differences and nutritional preferences. However, considering the extremely long time period covered by the scenarios, even these factors may change. Hence, the scenarios must be considered as one possible orientation for changes in consumption patterns, based on only one scenario of economic development.

This means that, by , modern food products will be higher quality and cost less than half as much to produce as the animal-derived products they replace.

This discussion paper attempts to present some of the future conditions for livestock production in developing countries and the options Donors as Danida has for supporting different strategies for development within this sector. The global food market is undergoing major changes, especially in the developing world. Driven by an increasing level of income of a large number of city dwellers, the per capita consumption of food of animal origin has increased dramatically, especially in Asia.

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Уже два часа утра. - Pi'dame uno. Вызовите мне машину.

Только с помощью еще одной точно так же настроенной шифровальной машины получатель текста мог его прочесть.

Почему бы и. Испания отнюдь не криптографический центр мира. Никто даже не заподозрит, что эти буквы что-то означают. К тому же если пароль стандартный, из шестидесяти четырех знаков, то даже при свете дня никто их не прочтет, а если и прочтет, то не запомнит.

- И Танкадо отдал это кольцо совершенно незнакомому человеку за мгновение до смерти? - с недоумением спросила Сьюзан.

Они рисовали на разграфленных листах какие-то символы, вглядывались в компьютерные распечатки и постоянно обращались к тексту, точнее - нагромождению букв и цифр, на экране под потолком, 5jHALSFNHKHHHFAF0HHlFGAFFj37WE fiUY0IHQ434JTPWFIAJER0cltfU4.

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Сьюзан и Соши занялись поисками во Всемирной паутине. - Лаборатория вне закона? - спросила Сьюзан.  - Это что за фрукт.

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  1. Tozragore

    Easier on turns!