Production fabrication wooden building products and standard houses
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- Low-rise residential buildings
- 10 innovative construction materials that could revolutionise the industry – Infographic
- Industry Timeline
- Types of building materials
- An Introduction to Japan Prefabricated Construction Suppliers and Manufacturers Association
- Certified LEED Platinum Building
- Lumber choices for wood frame construction - choosing timber for framing & building homes
- Welcome to the Astron World of Steel Buildings
- Plywood Supplier
Low-rise residential buildings
Low-rise residential buildings include the smallest buildings produced in large quantities. Other examples include the urban row house and walk-up apartment buildings. Typically these forms have relatively low unit costs because of the limited purchasing power of their owners.
The demand for this type of housing has a wide geographic distribution, and therefore most are built by small local contractors using relatively few large machines mostly for earth moving and large amounts of manual labour at the building site. The demand for these buildings can have large local variations from year to year, and small builders can absorb these economic swings better than large organizations.
The building systems developed for this market reflect its emphasis on manual labour and its low unit costs. All foundations must transmit the building loads to a stable stratum of earth. There are two criteria for stability: first, the soil under the foundations should be able to receive the imposed load without more than about 2. It is also important that the bottom of the foundation be below the maximum winter frost level.
Wet soil expands as it freezes, and repeated freeze—thaw cycles can move the building up and down, leading to possible displacement and damage. Maximum frost depth varies with climate and topography. It can be as deep as 1. The foundation systems for low-rise residential buildings are suitable for their light loads; nearly all are supported on spread footings , which are of two types—continuous footings that support walls and isolated pad footings that support concentrated loads.
The footings themselves are usually made of concrete poured directly on undisturbed soil to a minimum depth of about 30 centimetres 12 inches.
If typical continuous concrete footings are used, they usually support a foundation wall that acts either as a retaining wall to form a basement or as a frost wall with earth on both sides.
Foundation walls can be built of reinforced concrete or masonry, particularly concrete block. Concrete blocks are of a standard size larger than bricks and are hollow, forming a grid of vertical planes. They are the least expensive form of masonry—using cheap but strong material—and their large size economizes on the labour required to lay them. Their appearance and weathering properties are inferior to those of fired masonry, but they are satisfactory for foundation walls.
In some places timber foundation walls and spread footings are used. Excavation for foundations is the most highly mechanized operation in this building type; it is done almost entirely with bulldozers and backhoes.
In these small buildings the ancient materials of timber and masonry are still predominant in the structural systems. In North America , which has abundant softwood forests, light timber frames descended from the 19th-century balloon frame are widely used. The first step is to construct a floor , which rests on the foundation wall.
The span of the floor joists is usually about 3. The floor may need intermediate supports in the form of interior foundation walls or, if there is a basement, intermediate beams of wood or steel supported by the foundation walls and columns. For longer spans, floor trusses can be made, with members joined by nail grids or nailed plywood gussets or with wood chords and diagonal metal web members. On top of the joists is nailed plywood subflooring, which forms the deck and gives lateral stability to the floor plane.
The walls are sheathed on the outside with panels of plywood or particleboard to provide a surface to attach the exterior cladding and for lateral stability against wind. Plywood and particleboard are fabricated in panels of standard sizes. Plywood is made of thin layers of wood, rotary-cut from logs and glued together with the wood grain running perpendicularly in adjoining layers. Particleboard consists of fine wood chips mixed together in an adhesive matrix and allowed to harden under pressure.
On top of the wall plate is placed either a second floor or the roof. Since most of the roofing materials used in these buildings are not fully watertight, the roofs must have sloped surfaces to rapidly drain off rainwater.
Sloped forms are created by two methods. The traditional method uses joists similar to those of floor construction to span between exterior walls. Rafters are nailed to the ends of each joist and the rafters meet at a central ridge member, forming a triangular attic space.
Where no attic space is needed, it has proved more economical to span the roof with triangular trusses with interior web members. These roof trusses are usually made of narrow timbers joined by nails, glue, or metal connectors, and they are often prefabricated in a workshop.
Plywood or particleboard sheathing is then nailed to the roof surfaces to receive the roofing and to provide lateral stability, making the entire frame into a rigid box.
Light timber frames are quite flammable, but small one- or two-story buildings are easy to evacuate in case of a fire , and building codes permit the use of these frames with such features as fire-resistant gypsum board on the interiors and fire-stops short wooden members between the studs.
Timber structures are attacked by certain species of insects—such as termites and carpenter ants—as well as certain fungi, particularly in warm, moist climates. Wood can be chemically treated to discourage these attacks; other precautions include raising the timber above the ground and keeping it dry.
Structural masonry walls are also used in this building type, primarily in multistory buildings, where they offer greater load-bearing capacity and fire resistance. Brick and concrete block are the major materials, brick being favoured for exterior surfaces because of its appearance and durability.
Solid brick walls are rarely used, due to the higher labour and material costs; composite walls of brick and block or block alone are common. Cavity walls are used in colder climates; in these, two wythes vertical layers of masonry are built on either side of a layer of rigid insulation. The wythes are joined together by steel reinforcement that runs through the insulation and is laid in the horizontal masonry joints at intervals.
Cavity walls have a heat-flow rate that is 50 percent of that of a solid wall. Timber floor and roof construction, similar to balloon framing , is used with masonry construction; and there is also some use of precast prestressed hollow concrete panels, which are fireproof and can span up to nine metres 30 feet. Enclosure systems for this building type are varied. For roofs, traditional wood shingles or, more commonly, felt asphalt shingles are used, as are semicylindrical clay tiles and standing-seam metal roofs.
Rainwater from roofs is usually caught in metal gutters and directed to exterior downspouts that discharge onto splash blocks or into underground drains connected to storm sewers.
The wall surfaces of low-rise residential buildings are clad with a range of different materials. Traditional wood elements such as shingles and horizontal shiplap, or clapboard siding, are used on light timber frames as are vertical tongue-and-groove siding and boards and battens.
Aluminum and vinyl sidings have been adapted from these wooden forms. Brick and stone veneer are also applied over timber and anchored to it with metal fasteners. Cement plaster , or stucco , is another traditional material used to enclose both timber and masonry structures, and its semiliquid application allows great plasticity of form. A more recent development is a very thin synthetic resin stucco applied directly to the surface of rigid plastic foam insulation.
Insulation , which slows the rate of heat transfer through the enclosure, is usually applied at all exterior building surfaces that are exposed to air. There are two major types of insulation, rigid and nonrigid. Rigid insulations are primarily plastic foams the dead air in the foam cells is the true insulator , which vary in thickness from 2.
They include styrofoam , used primarily below grade behind frost walls due to its low fire resistance; urethane foam; isocyanurate foam, which has the best fire resistance; and foam glass.
Nonrigid insulations are usually made of fibre —glass fibre being the most common—often with a foil-backed paper on one side. Fibre insulations are made in thicknesses up to 23 centimetres 9. The effectiveness of an insulation material is measured in terms of its heat-transfer rate, or U-value, often expressed as the number of BTUs passing through a given unit of insulating material each hour at an expressed temperature differential across the material.
Low U-values indicate good insulating properties of the material. U-value is an inverse function of thickness, so that there is a limit to the cost-effectiveness of increasing the amount of insulation on a surface.
Rigid insulation panels are applied to vertical wall sheathing and the surfacing material is fastened through the insulation, or it is applied to horizontal roof decks.
Glass fibre is usually applied in the spaces between wall studs and between roof joists or the bottom chords of roof trusses. Most low-rise residential buildings have a limited number of transparent openings in their exteriors, because of the traditional requirements of interior privacy and the relatively higher cost of windows compared to opaque walls.
The traditional wooden frames of domestic windows are often clad in extruded vinyl or aluminum cladding, and frames made entirely of extruded aluminum are common. Residential windows are a major means of ventilation, and there are a variety of operating actions for their movable sections: sliding or double-hung windows are still the major form, but hinged types—including casement, hopper, and awning forms—are also used.
Sliding glass panel doors are also used, particularly in warmer regions. Glazing is still largely of clear glass. A recent development is heat-mirror glass , in which a low-emissivity coating enhances the relative opacity of the glass to infrared radiation and slows the rate of internal heat loss in winter. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page. Low-rise residential buildings Low-rise residential buildings include the smallest buildings produced in large quantities.
Foundations All foundations must transmit the building loads to a stable stratum of earth. Structural systems Timber frames In these small buildings the ancient materials of timber and masonry are still predominant in the structural systems.
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10 innovative construction materials that could revolutionise the industry – Infographic
Low-rise residential buildings include the smallest buildings produced in large quantities. Other examples include the urban row house and walk-up apartment buildings. Typically these forms have relatively low unit costs because of the limited purchasing power of their owners. The demand for this type of housing has a wide geographic distribution, and therefore most are built by small local contractors using relatively few large machines mostly for earth moving and large amounts of manual labour at the building site. The demand for these buildings can have large local variations from year to year, and small builders can absorb these economic swings better than large organizations.
Wood is a fundamental part of construction. It is a versatile construction material because it can be found everywhere. Early settlers in North America used wood to build log cabins since it was more efficient than transporting other materials all the way from Europe. Rosmanitz, Wood did not require extensive tools in order to be produced as a construction material. Back then wood was the most reliable building material available.
Check out this custom timber frame barn with living quarters in Sandy, Oregon and see what DC Building can do for you. Real Timber Framing. Replies Created: 0. They were there on site as the timber frame arrived and were on the property until the frame. The team at PrecisionCraft and M. To learn more about our barns visit our website: www. Douglas Fir, Hemlock, Oak and Pine are common types of.
Types of building materials
Custom Homes Timberframe Passive House. Passive House is the most uncompromising building energy standard in the world. The durability and comfort of a Bensonwood Passive House is now a modern standard for living. We build homes that matter on a grander scale, enhancing their communities and improving society. Homes that are gentle on the environment and a welcoming retreat for its occupants.
This chapter provides information related to commonly used wood construction methods i. It briefly discusses the manufacturing of four major lumber-based mass timber products i. The discussion also addresses primary lumber products, such as dimension lumber, machine stress-rated lumber, and finger-joined lumber, which are the building blocks from which mass timber products are manufactured.
An Introduction to Japan Prefabricated Construction Suppliers and Manufacturers Association
Ecocor Cost. EcoCor Corrosion Costing "Economics of Corrosion" helps us understand the cost implications of corrosion for project planning and maintenance CorEng Corrosion in detail "orrosion Engineering" is an in-depth introduction to the fundamental principles of corrosion engineering ECDA Corrosion detection procedures. One-hundred twenty years later, the University is still nurturing a tradition of cultural and scientific learning. These free woodworking plans will help the beginner all the way up to the expert craft.
The Architecture Engineering and Construction AEC industry is undergoing a revolution; we live in the era in which we will likely see its complete digital transformation, from concept to fabrication. While many may think the adoption of BIM is an end in itself, moving from 2D to 3D was really only an initial phase in a longer digitisation process. It will eventually lead to computationally assisted design, automated manufacture and assembly. While this all sounds far-fetched, we have seen this happen before, in the world of manufacturing. There are firms now racing to get the benefits of digital pre-fabrication, modular in mass production of buildings in mainstream markets - houses, offices, hotels - through the convergence of many technologies and processes appropriated from the rather more mature market of industrial-scale manufacturing, such as aerospace and automotive. Then there are the players who are already deeply invested in housing or functional buildings, like Marriott, or in the case of the UK, Berkley Homes, Legal and General and Ilke Homes.
Certified LEED Platinum Building
Every building material comes with an environmental cost of some sort. However, some principles can help guide your choice of sustainable materials and construction systems. Careful analysis and selection of materials and the way they are combined can yield significant improvements in the comfort and cost effectiveness of your home, and greatly reduce its life cycle environmental impact. The first step in any strategy to use sustainable materials is to reduce the demand for new materials. Consider building smaller, well-designed houses and minimising wastage by using prefabricated or modular elements, for example, and by avoiding unnecessary linings and finishes. During design and construction, incorporate approaches that will make it easier to adapt, reuse and eventually dismantle the building. The next step is to select materials with low environmental impact. When looking at the environmental impact of a material or product, consider all stages of the life cycle — the upstream stage materials extraction and manufacture , the in-use or operational stage, and the downstream stage disposal or reuse.
Framing lumber, also known as structural wood, is the grade of wood used for house framing studs, Larsen Trusses for Double-Stud walls , headers, roof trusses and floor joists, etc. Its technical characteristics make it perfectly suitable when large spans are necessary. The list below outlines the different types of wood used as framing lumber most commonly used for house construction and increasingly in timber frames for multi-family low to mid-rise construction throughout the US and Canada. A constant source of confusion amongst DIY Home builders is lumber sizes, as commercially available 2x4" is actually 1.
Our association was founded in January as an organization playing a central role in developing the industrial production of housing and promoting the modernization and rationalization of the construction industry. Further, in October , we got a new start as a general incorporated association that aims to promote the creation of a rich living environment and high quality social capital through research and development on prefab architecture as well as its construction and propagation. These can be used for all kinds of concrete buildings, beginning of course with multiple-dwelling housing complexes, and including office buildings, shops, warehouses, medical facilities, sports facilities, etc. The PC Architecture Committee is conducting four projects, one for Certifying the quality of PC components, one for Inspecting PC structures, one for Certifying the qualifications of PC building construction management engineers, and one for Certifying the qualifications of PC components manufacturing management engineers.
Lumber choices for wood frame construction - choosing timber for framing & building homes
The much awaited and anticipated revolution in construction is gaining momentum. We now have drones, virtual reality, augmented reality, BIM , project management and more. Researchers and various institutes are taking technology to the next level.
By using the astron. For more information, or to change your cookie settings, click here. With more than 56 years in business we have created industrial buildings such as manufacturing plants, storehouses, commercial buildings, sports centers, offices, multi-storey car parks, garages and aircraft hangars. Astron is the leading European supplier of steel building solutions, designing and producing all the main components of a prefab metal building - the primary and secondary structures, the roof and wall systems, accessories and thermal insulation systems.
Welcome to the Astron World of Steel Buildings
Fired bricks. From the mids through about , the industrial revolution and steam power also helped make masonry building materials cheaper and more readily available. Universal materials testing machines can be configured for a host of applications by simply choosing the appropriate load cell, grip for holding the sample, optional materials testing software and accessories such as extensometers, thermal cabinets and high temperature furnaces. Using steel-reinforced concrete to form a shell, concrete and plaster are the most common in-ground pool-building materials and were the first ones used when residential pools became popular. Many naturally occurring substances such as wood, clay, stone, sand, leaves and even twigs have been employed to build buildings.
If you have a contribution you would like to make to this compilation, please send it to timeline sbcindustry. Submissions will be subject to approval and may be edited for grammar, length and clarity. The information provided here has been obtained by SBCA from sources it believes to be reliable. However, neither SBCA nor its members guarantees the accuracy or completeness of any information published.