Production commercial yarn produced by the flax industry
Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: March 03, Published: May 9, Mechanical properties of flax and hemp yarns designed for the manufacturing of geo textiles. Improvement of the resistance to soil born microorganisms. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: LINEN - Making Linen Fabric from Flax Seed - Demonstration Of How Linen Is Made
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Linen Most Useful: Perspectives on Structure, Chemistry, and Enzymes for Retting Flax
Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: March 03, Published: May 9, Mechanical properties of flax and hemp yarns designed for the manufacturing of geo textiles.
Improvement of the resistance to soil born microorganisms. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol. DOI: Download PDF. Geotextiles are widely used to stabilize river banks from erosion when these ones are restored into vegetal covered areas as mentioned by European regulations.
For these applications imported coir coconut shell fibres based geotextiles are generally used because coir fibres show a good resistance to soil degradation. In Europe, flax and hemp plants are already grown for textile, building or oil applications. By-products of these industries such as flax tows and short hemp fibres were used to manufacture yarns.
The resistance to degradation via the measurement of the mechanical properties of these yarns submitted to enzymatic cellulase and microbial attacks Cellvibrio gandavensis mimicking soil degradation was evaluated. Large decreases in mechanical properties were observed, even though these ones were still higher than the as received reference coir material. After impregnation by chitosan of the fibres, the tensile properties of the yarns globally remained unchanged after severe attacks.
The chitosan acts as a protection against the soil microorganism attacks. As a consequence, flax and hemp by-products could be good candidates for local manufacturing of biodegradable geotextiles. Natural fibre-based geotextiles have found a particular interest for the last two decades as an increasing knowledge of natural fibre properties has been gained. Primary uses of geotextiles are separation or stabilization, drainage, erosion control and reinforcement of road sides or river banks.
If plastic based geotextiles were mainly used up to recently, some concerns about their end of life and their impact on the environment led to the design of natural fibre based products. Widely-open woven textiles, quasi exclusively manufactured manually from coir and jute fibres, are more easily biodegraded at the end of their service life than plastic based materials.
However, to be suitable for a geotextiles use, natural fibre materials should have reasonably good mechanical properties, good resistance to biodegradation such as resistance to microbial attacks. Flax tows from textile breeds, flax fibres from oleaginous breeds and short hemp fibres are by-products of the textile, vegetal oil or building industries respectively. They represent in France large renewable resources that could be used to manufacture geotextiles industrially.
From a mechanical point of view, hemp and flax fibres have higher tensile strength, compared to coir fibres. Indeed, high micro-fibrilar angles have for consequence to reduce the sensitivity to microorganism attack. Chitosan a widespread biodegradable polymer exhibits antimicrobial activity bacteriostatic and fungistatic. Some investigations on chitosan impregnated textiles, showed a certain dependency of the antimicrobial activity with the chitosan molecular weight.
Thus, to prevent premature degradations of the bio-based geotextiles, flax and hemp yarns were impregnated by a low molecular weight chitosan and their tensile mechanical properties determined before and after severe enzymatic and bacterial attacks to investigate the potential of these fibres to be manufactured into geotextiles. The measured properties of flax and hemp yarns were compared to the ones of coir yarns which is nowadays the reference on the market.
A discussion about the role of chitosan to maintain a good mechanical property level after enzymatic treatment and bacterial attacks is presented in this paper. Three different materials were used to study the biodegradation of natural fibre yarns.
To study the resistance to degradation of flax tows and hemp fibres, these ones were twisted into yarns, by Groupe Depestele Le Bocasse, France. The physical properties of the yarns are presented in Table 1. In relation to geotextiles application, mechanical properties of dry fibres were investigated by simulating accelerated soil degradation conditions.
For this purpose, enzymatic and microorganism treatments were conducted in optimized conditions. In this work enzymatic and bacterial degradation were performed as described by Renouard et al 16 by using Aspergillus Niger cellulase extract and Cellvibrio gandavensis bacteria.
Solutions were stirred for 8 hours. Yarns were then immerged in chitosan solution under shaking for 16h. Tensile tests were conducted on un-treated, protected and submitted to enzymatic and bacterial attacks flax, hemp and coir yarns, according to the ASTM standard. All data presented in this study are the mean and standard deviation of, at least, 5 independent replicates. Tensile strength of un-protected yarns: Average values of tensile strengths of as-received flax, hemp and coir fibres are presented in Table 1 as a comparison basis for the evolution of the tensile properties with different treatments.
A ratio of 1. This is due to the fact that more ligneous residues are part of the yarn structure. The hemp yarn is therefore coarser and the probability to encounter weak zone is higher than for the neater flax yarn. The flax and hemp yarn strengths are respectively 5.
In this case, the relative flax and hemp strengths are respectively 7. Table 1 Physical and Tensile properties of un-processed flax, hemp and coir yarns. When submitted to enzymatic and bacterial environments, the as received flax and hemp yarns show large statistically significant tensile strength decreases when compared to their initial properties. This shows that for both approaches large tensile strength decreases took place. However, in spite of a similar chemical composition, flax presents higher tensile properties than hemp, even after degradation Figure 2A Figure 2E.
After degradation by cellulase, the initial ratio of tensile strength 1. Figure 2 Evolution of tensile strength of flax and hemp yarns for different protection and degradation treatments. It is also very interesting to note that the values of the degraded as received flax and hemp yarns unprotected exhibit strength values that are larger than the strength of the non-degraded by enzymatic or bacterially reference coco based yarn. The degraded strength of flax and hemp are respectively larger by factors of about 3 and 2 for flax and hemp respectively.
When treated by chitosan, the ratio between the flax and hemp yarns is 1. The ratio is globally not affected by the addition of the protection layer.
It is important to note that the addition of the protective layer of chitosan does not almost change the tensile resistance of the flax and hemp yarns. When submitted to enzymatic and microbial attacks, no significant difference can be observed between the chitosan impregnated yarns before and after attacks in Figure 2C Figure 2G for both flax and hemp yarns.
This therefore indicates that the chitosan as initially expected well prevents the degradation of the tensile resistance of the cellulose rich flax and hemp fibres. This is due to the fact that the structure of the yarns is globally equivalent.
It is interesting to note here that the degradation of the untreated as received hemp modulus is more severe than the one of the flax yarns. This follows the same tendency as the one observed for the strength parameter. The enzymatically and bacterially degraded as received flax and hemp yarns unprotected exhibit module values that are larger than the ones of the non-degraded by enzymatic or bacterial attack reference coco based yarn Figure 3A Figure 3E.
The degraded modulus of flax and hemp are respectively larger by factors of about 4 and 3 for flax and hemp respectively. One can however note that a decrease by a factor 1. When treated by chitosan, the ratio between the flax and hemp yarns module is 1.
The addition of chitosan has therefore for effect to reduce the modulus of hemp and not the one of flax. The ratio between the two flax and hemp yarns is therefore affected. It is important to note that the addition of the protective layer of chitosan does not almost change the modulus of the flax yarns whereas it changes the modulus of the hemp ones Figure 3G. This is probably due to the coarser nature of the hemp yarn.
Indeed, the addition of chitosan in a coarser yarn may increase the in homogeneity of the fibrous structure and therefore may decrease its tensile modulus. From the results presented in Table 1 and Figure 2 , tendencies can be extracted. A first one shows that the tensile strength of as received flax yarns are higher than the hemp one Table 1. Indeed, the hemp yarn is coarser, less homogeneous and possesses more ligneous residues than the flax yarn.
Generally, the strength and the modulus of flax individual fibres are larger than the ones of hemp. This is not due to the composition of the fibres but more to the way the fibres are extracted from the stems. Indeed, the methods used to extract hemp fibres are more aggressive and cause more defects in the fibre structure.
However, this work shows that the structure effect is the main parameter that controls the modulus of the flax and hemp yarns. The coarser nature of the hemp yarns does not affect the modulus of as received yarns. The impregnation by chitosan does not affect the tensile strength and tensile modulus of flax and hemp yarns in Figures 2C,2G Figures 3C,3G.
However, one could have expected that the tensile properties of the protected by chitosan yarns are higher than the as received ones as the chitosan may have played a role of load transmission between the fibres.
When submitted to enzymatic degradation such as cellulase, or bacterial attacks such as Cellvibrio gandavensis the tensile properties of un-protected flax and hemp yarns show respectively large statistically significative decreases in strength and modulus. However, even after the most severe degradations, the tensile properties of flax and hemp yarns are higher than the ones of as received coir reference yarns 3 times and twice for flax and hemp tensile strength and 4 times and 3 times for flax and hemp tensile modulus.
One could object that structural differences exist between the single twisted flax and hemp yarns and the double twisted coir ones, but the goal of such comparisons is to establish if the reference coir product performances can be overcome. This is obviously the case and the results presented in this work demonstrate the potential of flax and hemp simple yarn structures for the use in geotextiles products without any protective treatments. To enhance the resistance to bacterial and enzymatic degradation of flax and hemp fibres, a protection by low molecular weight chitosan was applied for its physical protection and bacteriostatic properties.
This therefore demonstrates that the protection by chitosan preserves the performances of flax and hemp yarns submitted to severe enzymatic and microbial degradations. This effective protection conferred by chitosan estimated by a mechanical property approach is in a good agreement to the results obtained by Renouard et al.
As the mechanical properties of the flax or the hemp yarns of this work are much higher than the reference coir ones and this for yarns containing 1.
Indeed, this work shows that the mechanical properties of the flax and hemp yarns are much higher than the ones of reference coco yarns 3 times and twice for flax and hemp tensile strength and 4 times and 3 times for flax and hemp tensile modulus. If one reports the properties to the fineness of the yarns, the difference in properties would be even larger.
The tensile strengths would be 4. This indicates that much lower amounts of fibrous materials can be used to obtain similar properties with flax and hemp yarns to the ones of reference coco yarns. This is particularly interesting for the ecological engineering professionals as it could be possible to use much lighter products for equivalent levels of performance and this from products manufactured locally from local agricultural resources.
Transportation of larger geotextiles surfaces for a same mass could be also expected. This would have for effect to reduce the cost of transportation of the products and make the labour of the end users easier. To investigate the potential of geotextiles produced from local resources, flax and hemp yarns were submitted to enzymatic and bacterial degradation protocols using Aspergillus Niger cellulase and Cellvibrio gandavensis bacteria to reproduce some of the potential natural degradation mechanisms in soil.
In this work, the impact of enzymatic and bacterial degradations on tensile mechanical properties was investigated on as received yarns produced from by-products of the textile and building industries and on yarns impregnated by low molecular weight chitosan. Even if large relative decreases in mechanical properties were observed after degradation protocols for as-received yarns, these ones remained much higher than the reference product for both flax and hemp yarns.
Flax Fiber: Potential for a New Crop in the Southeast
Yarn is a strand composed of fibres, filaments individual fibres of extreme length , or other materials, either natural or man-made, suitable for use in the construction of interlaced fabrics, such as woven or knitted types. The strand may consist of a number of fibres twisted together; a number of filaments grouped together but not twisted; a number of filaments twisted together; a single filament, called a monofilament, either with or without twist; or one or more strips made by dividing a sheet of material, such as paper or metal foil, and either twisted or untwisted. The properties of the yarn employed greatly influence the appearance, texture, and performance of the completed fabric. Fibres are units of matter having length at least times their diameter or width. Fibres suitable for textile use possess adequate length, fineness, strength, and flexibility for yarn formation and fabric construction and for withstanding the intended use of the completed fabric.
Linen is a flax-based textile that is predominantly used for homeware applications. While linen is similar to cotton, it is made from fibers derived from the stems of the flax plant instead of the bolls that grow around cotton seeds. Garments made of linen are desirable in hot and humid climates. Unlike cotton, which tends to retain moisture for a significant period of time, linen dries quickly, which helps reduce heat retention in overly warm conditions.
Ramie Fibre Processing and Value Addition
We see its ecological consciousness throughout the industry. Mechanical activities are a part of each operation in its transformation — scutching, combing, spinning, weaving. Counting all stages of production, the European linen industry is made up of 10, companies in 14 countries of the EU : a network of interactive professionnals — growers, scutchers, spinners, weavers, knitters, finishers, traders. Linen helps maintain an economic and social fabric in rural zones. Its growth and transformation require a large, qualified, local work force. The Linen industry is committed to respecting the laws of the International Labor Office. Flax fibers are known for their great ability to absorb water.
Flax Production in the Seventeenth Century
Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest human activities. The oldest known textiles date back to about B. In order to make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarn can be made, primarily by spinning. The yarn is processed by knitting or weaving to create cloth. The machine used for weaving is the loom.
Ramie fibre comes under bast fibre category, which can be classified as underutilised fibres. The high potential of ramie fibre is not fully exploited due to various techno-economic reasons. It is one of the strongest natural fibres having rich cellulose content. Apart from textile uses, ramie fibre can be utilised for the production of various diversified products.
Linen / Flax
Index Search Home Table of Contents. Foulk, Danny E. Akin, Roy B. Dodd, and David D.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: The Mill - Mechanized Carding, Spinning, Weaving on Edwardian Farm
When Sir George Yeardley returned to Jamestown in , one of his instructions from the Virginia company of London was to promote flax harvesting. The stockholders hoped that, as with silkworm cultivation, viticulture and glass production, the colonists would use this ancient crop to both realize a profit and diversify their labors. Ultimately, none of these ventures was a commercial success. The labor involved was either too intensive or required too much skill, the climate and soil of the Chesapeake region did not cooperate, or plain bad luck attended the operations. That did not mean, however, that wine, silk or linen were never produced in Virginia. Although flax, the plant from which linen is derived, never rivaled tobacco as a cash crop in the Chesapeake, most farmers and plantation owners grew small amounts will into the 's for their own use.
What is Linen Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where
Advanced Search. From the mids until the s, fields of blue-flowering flax flourished in the fertile Willamette Valley to support the only flax industry in the United States. The soil and climate were perfect for growing superior flax, and the plants were transformed into lustrous linen yarn and fabrics. Several species of wild flax are native to Oregon, and when Meriwether Lewis and William Clark traveled down the Columbia River in , they recorded descriptions of Indians fishing and making baskets using a twine made of wild flax. The state's flax industry has its origins in seed that white settlers brought with them to Oregon. Sarah Damon Owen, for example, planted her seeds in the spring of and wrote that she "gathered a quart of seed, had enough fiber floss to pad two quilts, and a hank of the finest fiber ever seen. The first commercial flax venture was in , when the Pioneer Oil Works processed locally grown flax for linseed oil, oil cakes for cattle feed, and yarn for upholstery fabrics. A small fiber-flax plant in Albany produced Oregon linen that won a prize at the Centennial Exposition of for its superior qualities.
Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution in Britain was centred in south Lancashire and the towns on both sides of the Pennines. The main key drivers of the Industrial Revolution were textile manufacturing , iron founding , steam power , oil drilling, the discovery of electricity and its many industrial applications, the telegraph and many others. Railroads, steam boats, the telegraph and other innovations massively increased worker productivity and raised standards of living by greatly reducing time spent during travel, transportation and communications. Before the 18th century, the manufacture of cloth was performed by individual workers, in the premises in which they lived and goods were transported around the country by packhorses or by river navigations and contour-following canals that had been constructed in the early 18th century. In the midth century, artisans were inventing ways to become more productive.
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Yarn consists of several strands of material twisted together. Each strand is, in turn, made of fibers, all shorter than the piece of yarn that they form. These short fibers are spun into longer filaments to make the yarn. Long continuous strands may only require additional twisting to make them into yarns.
Linen yarn is spun from the long fibers found just behind the bark in the multi-layer stem of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum. In order to retrieve the fibers from the plant, the woody stem and the inner pith called pectin , which holds the fibers together in a clump, must be rotted away. The cellulose fiber from the stem is spinnable and is used in the production of linen thread, cordage, and twine. From linen thread or yarn, fine toweling and dress fabrics may be woven. Linen fabric is a popular choice for warm-weather clothing.
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