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Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very strong, absorbent, and dries faster than cotton. Garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot and humid weather.
This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line , from the use of a linen flax thread to determine a straight line. The collective term " linens " is still often used generically to describe a class of woven or knitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles traditionally made of flax-based linen but today made from a variety of fibers.
The term "linens" refers to lightweight undergarments such as shirts, chemises , waist-shirts, lingerie a cognate with linen , and detachable shirt collars and cuffs, all of which were historically made almost exclusively out of linen. The inner layer of fine composite cloth garments as for example dress jackets was traditionally made of linen, hence the word lining. Textiles in a linen weave texture, even when made of cotton , hemp , or other non-flax fibers, are also loosely referred to as "linen".
Such fabrics frequently have their own specific names: for example fine cotton yarn in a linen-style weave may be called madapollam. Linen textiles appear to be some of the oldest in the world: their history goes back many thousands of years. Dyed flax fibers found in a prehistoric cave in Georgia suggest the use of woven linen fabrics from wild flax may date back even earlier to 36, BP.
Linen was sometimes used as a form of currency in ancient Egypt. Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. Some of these fabrics, woven from hand-spun yarns, were very fine for their day, but are coarse compared to modern linen. It has a long staple individual fiber length relative to cotton and other natural fibers. This word history has given rise to a number of other terms:. The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in Georgia dated to thirty-six thousand years ago suggests that ancient people used wild flax fibers to create linen-like fabrics from an early date.
In ancient Mesopotamia , flax was domesticated and linen was first produced. It was used mainly by the wealthier class of the society, including priests. It opens with briefly listing the steps of preparing linen from flax, in a form of questions and answers between Inanna and her brother Utu.
In ancient Egypt, linen was used for mummification and for burial shrouds. It was also worn as clothing on a daily basis; white linen was worn because of the extreme heat. The use of linen for priestly vestments was not confined to the Israelites; Plutarch wrote that the priests of Isis also wore linen because of its purity.
Linen fabric has been used for table coverings, bed coverings and clothing for centuries. The significant cost of linen derives not only from the difficulty of working with the thread, but also because the flax plant itself requires a great deal of attention.
In addition flax thread is not elastic, and therefore it is difficult to weave without breaking threads. Thus linen is considerably more expensive to manufacture than cotton. There is a long history of the production of linen in Ireland. The Living Linen Project was set up in as an oral archive of the knowledge of the Irish linen industry, which was at that time still available within a nucleus of people who formerly worked in the industry in Ulster.
In December , the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed to be the International Year of Natural Fibres in order to raise people's awareness of linen and other natural fibers. When the tomb of the Pharaoh Ramses II , who died in BC, was discovered in , the linen wrappings were in a state of perfect preservation after more than years.
In the Ulster Museum , Belfast there is the mummy of ' Takabuti ' the daughter of a priest of Amun , who died 2, years ago. The Phoenicians , who, with their merchant fleet, opened up new channels of commerce to the peoples of the Mediterranean, and developed the tin mines of Cornwall , introduced flax growing and the making of linen into Ireland before the common era [ citation needed ]. It is not until the twelfth century that we can find records of a definite attempt to systematize flax production.
When the Edict of Nantes was revoked, in , many of the Huguenots who fled France settled in the British Isles, and amongst them was Louis Crommelin , who settled in the town of Lisburn , about ten miles from Belfast. Belfast itself is perhaps the most famous linen producing center throughout history; during the Victorian era the majority of the world's linen was produced in the city which gained it the name Linenopolis.
Although the linen industry was already established in Ulster, Louis Crommelin found scope for improvement in weaving, and his efforts were so successful that he was appointed by the Government to develop the industry over a much wider range than the small confines of Lisburn and its surroundings.
The direct result of his good work was the establishment, under statute, of the Board of Trustees of the Linen Manufacturers of Ireland in the year Several grades were produced from the coarsest lockram to the finest sasheen. In Judaism , the only law concerning which fabrics may be interwoven together in clothing concerns the mixture of linen and wool , called shaatnez ; it is restricted in Deuteronomy "Thou shalt not wear a mingled stuff, wool and linen together" and Leviticus , "' And that such commands serve both a practical as well as allegorical purpose, perhaps here preventing a priestly garment that would cause discomfort or excessive sweat in a hot climate.
Linen is also mentioned in the Bible in Proverbs 31, a passage describing a noble wife. Proverbs says, "She makes coverings for her bed; she is clothed in fine linen and purple. Linen is a bast fiber. There are two varieties: shorter tow fibers used for coarser fabrics and longer line fibers used for finer fabrics. The cross-section of the linen fiber is made up of irregular polygonal shapes which contribute to the coarse texture of the fabric.
Linen fabric feels cool to touch, a phenomenon which indicates its higher conductivity the same principle that makes metals feel "cold". It is smooth, making the finished fabric lint-free, and gets softer the more it is washed. However, constant creasing in the same place in sharp folds will tend to break the linen threads.
This wear can show up in collars, hems, and any area that is iron creased during laundering. Linen's poor elasticity means that it easily wrinkles. Mildew, perspiration, and bleach can damage the fabric, but because it is not made from animal fibers keratin it is impervious to clothes moths and carpet beetles.
Linen is relatively easy to take care of, since it resists dirt and stains, has no lint or pilling tendency, and can be dry-cleaned, machine-washed, or steamed. It can withstand high temperatures, and has only moderate initial shrinkage.
Linen should not be dried too much by tumble drying, and it is much easier to iron when damp. Linen wrinkles very easily, and thus some more formal garments require ironing often, in order to maintain perfect smoothness.
Nevertheless, the tendency to wrinkle is often considered part of linen's particular "charm", and many modern linen garments are designed to be air-dried on a good clothes hanger and worn without the necessity of ironing. A characteristic often associated with linen yarn is the presence of slubs , or small, soft, irregular lumps, which occur randomly along its length. In the past, slubs were traditionally considered to be defects, and were associated with low quality linen.
However, in the case of many present-day linen fabrics, particularly in the decorative furnishing industry, slubs are considered as part of the aesthetic appeal of an expensive natural product.
In addition, slubs do not compromise the integrity of the fabric, and therefore they are not viewed as a defect. However, the very finest linen has very consistent diameter threads, with no slubs at all. The standard measure of bulk linen yarn is the "lea", which is the number of yards in a pound of linen divided by The fine yarns used in handkerchiefs, etc. This is a specific length therefore an indirect measurement of the fineness of the linen, i.
The symbol is NeL. The quality of the finished linen product is often dependent upon growing conditions and harvesting techniques. To generate the longest possible fibers, flax is either hand-harvested by pulling up the entire plant or stalks are cut very close to the root. The fibers must then be loosened from the stalk. This is achieved through retting.
This is a process which uses bacteria to decompose the pectin that binds the fibers together. Natural retting methods take place in tanks and pools, or directly in the fields. There are also chemical retting methods; these are faster, but are typically more harmful to the environment and to the fibers themselves. After retting, the stalks are ready for scutching , which takes place between August and December. Scutching removes the woody portion of the stalks by crushing them between two metal rollers, so that the parts of the stalk can be separated.
The fibers are removed and the other parts such as linseed , shive , and tow are set aside for other uses. Next the fibers are heckled : the short fibers are separated with heckling combs by 'combing' them away, to leave behind only the long, soft flax fibers. After the fibers have been separated and processed, they are typically spun into yarns and woven or knit into linen textiles. These textiles can then be bleached, dyed, printed on, or finished with a number of treatments or coatings.
The flax stalks are processed using traditional cotton machinery; however, the finished fibers often lose the characteristic linen look. Flax is grown in many parts of the world, but top quality flax is primarily grown in Western European countries and Ukraine. High quality linen fabrics are now produced in the United States for the upholstery market and in Belgium.
Over the past 30 years the end use for linen has changed dramatically. A linen handkerchief , pressed and folded to display the corners, was a standard decoration of a well-dressed man's suit during most of the first part of the 20th century.
Linen fabric is one of the preferred traditional supports for oil painting. In the United States cotton is popularly used instead, as linen is many times more expensive there, restricting its use to professional painters. In Europe, however, linen is usually the only fabric support available in art shops; in the UK both are freely available with cotton being cheaper.
Linen is preferred to cotton for its strength, durability and archival integrity. Linen is also used extensively by artisan bakers. Known as a couche, the flax cloth is used to hold the dough into shape while in the final rise, just before baking. The couche is heavily dusted with flour which is rubbed into the pores of the fabric.
Then the shaped dough is placed on the couche. The floured couche makes a "non stick" surface to hold the dough. Then ridges are formed in the couche to keep the dough from spreading.
In the past, linen was also used for books the only surviving example of which is the Liber Linteus. Due to its strength, in the Middle Ages linen was used for shields , gambesons , and bowstrings ; in classical antiquity it was used to make a type of body armour, referred to as a linothorax.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Linen disambiguation. Main article: Flax. See also: hand processing flax.
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Natural fibre , any hairlike raw material directly obtainable from an animal, vegetable, or mineral source and convertible into nonwoven fabrics such as felt or paper or, after spinning into yarns, into woven cloth. A natural fibre may be further defined as an agglomeration of cells in which the diameter is negligible in comparison with the length. Although nature abounds in fibrous materials, especially cellulosic types such as cotton , wood , grains, and straw , only a small number can be used for textile products or other industrial purposes. Apart from economic considerations, the usefulness of a fibre for commercial purposes is determined by such properties as length, strength, pliability, elasticity, abrasion resistance, absorbency, and various surface properties. Most textile fibres are slender, flexible, and relatively strong. They are elastic in that they stretch when put under tension and then partially or completely return to their original length when the tension is removed. The use of natural fibres for textile materials began before recorded history. The oldest indication of fibre use is probably the discovery of flax and wool fabrics at excavation sites of the Swiss lake dwellers 7th and 6th centuries bce. Several vegetable fibres were also used by prehistoric peoples.
jute Sentence Examples
Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very strong, absorbent, and dries faster than cotton. Garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot and humid weather. This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line , from the use of a linen flax thread to determine a straight line. The collective term " linens " is still often used generically to describe a class of woven or knitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles traditionally made of flax-based linen but today made from a variety of fibers.
- Вы дежурили все это время. - Моя смена от семи до семи, - кивнула женщина. - Тогда вы наверняка ее видели.
И мы должны его найти. Найти тихо. Если он почует, что мы идем по его следу, все будет кончено. Теперь Сьюзан точно знала, зачем ее вызвал Стратмор.
- Глаза ее смотрели сурово. - Доктор. - Зюсс. - Он пожал плечами. - Ладно, - нахмурилась Сьюзан.
- Какой была твоя первая реакция, когда я сообщил тебе о смерти Танкадо. Сьюзан нахмурилась. - Я подумала, что АНБ его ликвидировало.
- Вот. Если АНБ в состоянии вывести пять риолитовых спутников на геостационарную орбиту над Ближним Востоком, то, мне кажется, легко предположить, что у нас достаточно средств, чтобы подкупить несколько испанских полицейских.
- Его доводы звучали волне убедительно.
Беккер слушал как завороженный. Учитель превратился в ученика. Однажды вечером на университетском представлении Щелкунчика Сьюзан предложила Дэвиду вскрыть шифр, который можно было отнести к числу базовых.
Забудьте о ней! - Он отключил телефон и запихнул за ремень. Больше ему никто не помешает. В двенадцати тысячах миль от этого места Токуген Нуматака в полной растерянности застыл у окна своего кабинета.
Устройства были обнаружены и удалены за целых три часа до намеченного срока взрыва. Сьюзан знала, что без ТРАНСТЕКСТА агентство беспомощно перед современным электронным терроризмом. Она взглянула на работающий монитор.
Ты ранена? - Стратмор положил руку ей на плечо.
Сьюзан повернулась, и Хейл, пропуская ее вперед, сделал широкий взмах рукой, точно приветствуя ее возвращение в Третий узел. - После вас, Сью, - сказал. ГЛАВА 41 В кладовке третьего этажа отеля Альфонсо XIII на полу без сознания лежала горничная.
Человек в очках в железной оправе положил в карман ее халата связку ключей.
Время ввода - двадцать три тридцать семь и восемь секунд, однако время завершения дешифровки не указано. - Мидж полистала страницы. - Ни вчера, ни. Бринкерхофф пожал плечами: - Быть может, ребята заняты сложной диагностикой. Мидж покачала головой: - Настолько сложной, что она длится уже восемнадцать часов? - Она выдержала паузу.
Он не пользовался своими обычными почтовыми ящиками - ни домашним, ни служебными. Он бывал в Университете Досися и использовал их главный компьютер.
Очевидно, там у него был адрес, который он сумел утаить. Это хорошо защищенный почтовый ящик, и мне лишь случайно удалось на него наткнуться.