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Produce manufacturing synthetic dyes

Produce manufacturing synthetic dyes

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VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Production of Natural Yellow and Synthetic Reactive Black 5 Dyes

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Content:

Chemical and Synthetic Dyes

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See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Jun 13, We are Textile Engineer, we only apply dyes and pigment on textile substrate but we need to know how dyes and pigment manufacturing.

I have details about all dyes manufacturing. SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads.

You can change your ad preferences anytime. Flow chart of manufacturing of dyes. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this document? Why not share! All steps of preparation of fabric Mazadul Hasan Embed Size px.

Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Azmir Latif Beg , M. Published in: Education. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.

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No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Flow chart of manufacturing of dyes 1. Manufacturing of Dyes and Pigments Azmir Latif, MSc in Textile Engineering We are Textile Engineer, we only apply dyes and pigment on textile substrate but we need to know how dyes and pigment manufacturing. Manufacturing of Dyes and Pigments Azmir Latif, MSc in Textile Engineering Acid dyes are water-solubleanionic dyes that are applied to fibers such as silk, wool, nylon and modified acrylic fibers using neutral to acid dye baths.

Attachment to the fiber is attributed, at least partly, to salt formation between anionic groups in the dyes and cationic groups in the fiber. Acid dyes are not substantive to cellulosic fibers. Most synthetic food colors fall in this category. Basic dyes are water-soluble cationic dyes that are mainly applied to acrylic fibers, but find some use for wool and silk. Usually acetic acid is added to the dye bath to help the uptake of the dye onto the fiber. Basic dyes are also used in the coloration of paper.

Direct or substantive dyeing is normally carried out in a neutral or slightly alkaline dyebath, at or near boiling point, with the addition of either sodium chloride NaCl or sodium sulfate Na2SO4 or sodium carbonate Na2CO3. Direct dyes are used on cotton, paper, leather, wool, silk and nylon. They are also used as pH indicators and as biological stains. Mordant dyes require a mordant, which improves the fastness of the dye against water, light and perspiration.

The choice of mordant is very important as different mordants can change the final color significantly. Most natural dyes are mordant dyes and there is therefore a large literature base describing dyeing techniques. The mordant, potassium dichromate, is applied as an after-treatment.

It is important to note that many mordants, particularly those in the heavy metal category, can be hazardous to health and extreme care must be taken in using them. Vat dyes are essentially insoluble in water and incapable of dyeing fibres directly.

However, reduction in alkaline liquor produces the water soluble alkalimetalsalt of the dye, which, in this leuco form, has an affinity for the textile fibre. Subsequent oxidation reforms the original insoluble dye. The color of denim is due to indigo, the original vat dye.

Reactive dyes utilize a chromophore attached to a substituent that is capable of directly reacting with the fibre substrate. The covalent bonds that attach reactive dye to natural fibers make them among the most permanent of dyes. Reactive dyes are by far the best choice for dyeing cotton and other cellulose fibers at home or in the art studio. Disperse dyes were originally developed for the dyeing of cellulose acetate, and are water insoluble.

The dyes are finely ground in the presence of a dispersing agent and sold as a paste, or spray-dried and sold as a powder. Their main use is to dye polyester but they can also be used to dye nylon, cellulose triacetate, and acrylic fibres. The very fine particle size gives a large surface area that aids dissolution to allow uptake by the fibre. The dyeing rate can be significantly influenced by the choice of dispersing agent used during the grinding.

Azoic dyeing is a technique in which an insoluble azo dye is produced directly onto or within the fibre. This is achieved by treating a fibre with both diazoic and coupling components. With suitable adjustment of dyebath conditions the two components react to produce the required 3. This technique of dyeing is unique, in that the final color is controlled by the choice of the diazoic and coupling components.

This method of dyeing cotton is declining in importance due to the toxic nature of the chemicals used. Sulfur dyes are two part "developed" dyes used to dye cotton with dark colors. The initial bath imparts a yellow or pale chartreuse color, This is aftertreated with a sulfur compound in place to produce the dark black we are familiar with in socks for instance.

Sulfur Black 1 is the largest selling dye by volume. Food dyes One other class that describes the role of dyes, rather than their mode of use, is the food dye.

Because food dyes are classed as food additives, they are manufactured to a higher standard than some industrial dyes. Food dyes can be direct, mordant and vat dyes, and their use is strictly controlled by legislation. Many are azo dyes, although anthraquinone and triphenylmethane compounds are used for colors such as green and blue.

Some naturally-occurring dyes are also used. Only the leaves are used since they contain the greatest concentration of dye molecules. In the synthetic process, a number of chemicals are employed as described below.

The chemical found in plant leaves is really indican, a precursor to indigo. The ancient process to extract indican from plant leaves and convert it to indigo has remained unchanged for thousands of years. In this process, a series of tanks are arranged in a step wise fashion. The upper-most tank is a fermentation vessel into which the freshly cut plants are placed.

An enzyme known as indimulsin is added to hydrolyze, or break down, the indican into indoxyl and glucose. During this process carbon dioxide is given off and the broth in the tank turns a murky yellow. Here, the indoxyl-rich mixture is stirred with paddles to mix it with air. This allows the air to oxidize the indoxyl to indigotin, which settles to the bottom of the tank.

The upper layer of liquid is siphoned away and the settled pigment is transferred to a third tank where it is heated to stop the fermentation process. The resultant mixture is filtered to remove impurities and dried to form a thick paste. Manufacturing of Dyes and Pigments Azmir Latif, MSc in Textile Engineering Historically, the Japanese have used another method which involves extracting indigo from the polygonum plant. In this process the plant is mixed with wheat husk powder, limestone powder, lye ash, and sake.

The mixture is allowed to ferment for about one week to form the dye pigment which is called sukumo. All these processes involve combining a series of chemical reactants under controlled conditions. The reactants undergo a series of reactions which result in the formation of the indigo molecule. A number of other chemical byproducts are also produced in this reaction.

These vessels are equipped with jackets to allow steam or cold water to flow around the batch as the reactions progress.

The Birth of (Synthetic) Dyeing

Synthetic dyes are manufactured from organic molecules. Before synthetic dyes were discovered in , dyestuffs were manufactured from natural products such as flowers, roots, vegetables, insects, minerals, wood, and mollusks. Batches of natural dye were never exactly alike in hue and intensity, whereas synthetic dyestuffs can be manufactured consistently. The use of computers and computer color matching CCM produces color that is identical from batch to batch. William Henry Perkin, an eighteen-year-old English chemist, was searching for a cure for malaria, a synthetic quinine, and accidentally discovered the first synthetic dye.

Even benign chemicals like potato starch will kill fish and other aquatic life because they encourage the growth of algae which depletes all available oxygen, among other issues known as BOD or Biological Oxygen Demand. So be sure to buy fabric from a supplier who has water treatment in place.

Please be aware that the information provided on this page may be out of date, or otherwise inaccurate due to the passage of time. For more detail, see our Archive and Deletion Policy. Copyright: Used with permission As our castaway flag testifies, natural dyes offer a fairly limited range of colours. Until the discovery of synthetic alternatives, most natural dyes were derived from plants, and, to a much smaller extent, from shellfish or insects if you're interested, visit 'Experiments with Natural Dyes'. They were only present in small amounts and their extraction was often inefficient, so they were usually expensive.

В нескольких метрах от них лежало тело Хейла. Выли сирены. Как весенний лед на реке, потрескивал корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА. - Я спущусь вниз и отключу электропитание, - сказал Стратмор, положив руку на плечо Сьюзан и стараясь ее успокоить.  - И сразу же вернусь. Сьюзан безучастно смотрела, как он направился в шифровалку. Это был уже не тот раздавленный отчаянием человек, каким она видела его десять минут. Коммандер Тревор Стратмор снова стал самим собой - человеком железной логики и самообладания, делающим то, что полагалось делать.

Один из мужчин был крупного телосложения, в очках в тонкой металлической оправе с разбитыми стеклами. Второй - молодой темноволосый, в окровавленной рубашке. - Халохот - тот, что слева, - пояснил Смит. - Он мертв? - спросил директор. - Да, сэр.

Сьюзан ответила ему теплой улыбкой.

Но у него не выдержали нервы. Он слишком долго говорил ей полуправду: просто есть вещи, о которых она ничего не знала, и он молил Бога, чтобы не узнала. - Прости меня, - сказал он, стараясь говорить как можно мягче.  - Расскажи, что с тобой случилось.

Наверное, родители отправили ее сюда по какой-то школьной образовательной программе, снабдив кредитной карточкой Виза, а все кончилось тем, что она посреди ночи вкалывает себе в туалете наркотик. - Вы себя хорошо чувствуете? - спросил он, пятясь к двери. - Нормально, - высокомерно бросила.  - А тебе здесь делать нечего.

- Вы его убили. Вы же сказали… - Мы к нему пальцем не притронулись, - успокоил ее Стратмор.  - Он умер от разрыва сердца. Сегодня утром звонили из КОМИНТа.

Их компьютер через Интерпол засек имя Танкадо в регистратуре полиции Севильи. - От разрыва сердца? - усомнилась Сьюзан.

Хейл был необычайно силен. Когда он проволок ее по ковру, с ее ног соскочили туфли. Затем он одним движением швырнул ее на пол возле своего терминала. Сьюзан упала на спину, юбка ее задралась. Верхняя пуговица блузки расстегнулась, и в синеватом свете экрана было видно, как тяжело вздымается ее грудь.

However, manufacturing of synthetic dyes suffers from the following limitations: 1. Environmentally Unfriendly: The production of synthetic dyes requires strong.

Он протянул руку.  - El anillo. Кольцо. Беккер смотрел на него в полном недоумении.

Стратмор и его высокопоставленные посетители попадали в шифровалку и уходили незаметно для остальных сотрудников. Лифт спускался на пятьдесят ярдов вниз и затем двигался вбок по укрепленному туннелю еще сто девять ярдов в подземное помещение основного комплекса агентства. Лифт, соединяющий шифровалку с основным зданием, получал питание из главного комплекса, и оно действовало, несмотря на отключение питания шифровалки.

Я же сказал. Возвращается домой, к мамочке и папочке, в свой пригород. Ей обрыдли ее испанская семейка и местное житье-бытье. Три братца-испанца не спускали с нее глаз.

На экране промелькнула внутренняя часть мини-автобуса, и перед глазами присутствующих предстали два безжизненных тела у задней двери.

Он увидел пятна света. Сначала слабые, еле видимые на сплошном сером фоне, они становились все ярче. Попробовал пошевелиться и ощутил резкую боль. Попытался что-то сказать, но голоса не. Зато был другой голос, тот, что звал .

Сьюзан промолчала. Она поняла: все дело в деньгах. Она перенеслась мыслями в тот вечер, когда президент Джорджтаунского университета предложил Дэвиду повышение - должность декана факультета лингвистики.

Президент объяснил, что преподавательских часов будет меньше, бумажной работы больше, - но гораздо выше будет и жалованье. Сьюзан хотелось закричать: Дэвид, не соглашайся.

Это не принесет тебе радости. У нас много денег - какая разница, кто из нас их получает.

Все повернулись к экрану. Это был агент Колиандер из Севильи. Он перегнулся через плечо Беккера и заговорил в микрофон: - Не знаю, важно ли это, но я не уверен, что мистер Танкадо знал, что он пал жертвой покушения.

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  1. Nikogis

    Bravo, what necessary words..., an excellent idea