Produce manufactory products and blanks from waste plywood, veneer, boards
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Thermoplastic films exhibit good potential to be used as adhesives for the production of veneer-based composites. This work presents the first effort to develop and evaluate composites based on alder veneers and high-density polyethylene HDPE film. The effects of these variables on the core-layer temperature during the hot pressing of multiplywood panels using various adhesives were also studied.
UF and PF adhesives were used for the comparison. The findings of this work indicate that formaldehyde-free HDPE film adhesive gave values of mechanical properties of alder plywood panels that are comparable to those obtained with traditional UF and PF adhesives, even though the adhesive dosage and pressing pressure were lower than when UF and PF adhesives were used.
The obtained bonding strength values of HDPE-bonded alder plywood panels ranged from 0. The wood-based composites sector plays an important role in national economies in many countries. Plywood is widely used for different applications, such as construction, furniture manufacturing, means of transportation, packaging, decorative purposes, and many others. In comparison with conventional solid wood products, plywood has various advantages: increased dimensional stability, uniformity and higher mechanical strength, reduced processing cost, availability in larger sizes, better appearance, and biological benefits.
Global production of plywood reached mln m 3 in [ 2 ]. To produce such an amount of plywood, approximately 15 mln tons of resin are used. Synthetic thermosetting resins based on phenol, urea, formaldehyde, and isocyanates are usually used.
Urea—formaldehyde UF resins are incombustible, provide good bonding strength, resistance to fluctuations of temperature, light, and corrosion, have a small curing time, simple manufacturing technology, and low production costs.
However, they also have significant disadvantages, such as fragility, low water resistance, and significant emissions of formaldehyde. Phenol—formaldehyde PF resins can improve the bonding strength and water resistance, but they require a longer curing time, higher curing temperatures, higher production costs, and also emit phenol and formaldehyde [ 3 ]. The formaldehyde can irritate the eyes, respiratory and nervous systems, and possibly lead to cancer and leukemia.
Significant efforts have been made to reduce formaldehyde emissions from wood-based panels by the addition of various additives to the thermosetting resins or by the protection of the product with veneer, varnish, paint, and other coatings [ 5 ]. One of the possible directions is the creation of wood composites based on environmentally-friendly products, where thermoplastics polyethylene, polypropylene, poly vinyl chloride , and their copolymers are used as adhesives.
Already, there is a positive experience in the creation and use of wood composites based on thermoplastics [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ]. Waste polyethylene can be used in the manufacture of oriented strand board OSB panels, resulting in the enhancement of thickness swelling, humidity, dimensional stability, water absorption, and screw withdrawal resistance [ 6 ].
The properties of the composite boards were quite similar to or even better than those found in LVL made using thermosetting resin. The thermoplastic polymers were successfully used for coating of birch plywood [ 8 , 9 , 10 ]. Formaldehyde-free wood—plastic plywood has been successfully produced using thermoplastic polymers as wood adhesive [ 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ].
The various thermoplastic polymers such as HDPE [ 7 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 17 , 19 , 20 , 21 ], polystyrene [ 16 , 22 ], polypropylene [ 18 , 21 ], or poly vinyl chloride [ 23 , 24 ] in different forms, such as textile fiber waste polyurethane, polyamide-6 [ 21 ], recycled plastic shopping bags [ 7 , 11 ], or film [ 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 23 , 24 , 25 ] were used for veneer bonding.
The use of thermoplastic film as an adhesive for the bonding of veneer, apart from the fact that the plastic film is formaldehyde-free, has several other advantages compared with using liquid adhesives. Dry adhesive film is simpler to apply than wet adhesives; all of the untidy and unpleasant mixing and spreading operations in wet gluing are wholly removed from the plywood factory by the use of dry adhesive film. The dry adhesive film contains in each square meter of surface precisely the same quantity of adhesive, equal quality, uniform composition, exactly the same bond strength, and the same standard thickness [ 26 ].
Unfortunately, thermoplastic polymers are often hydrophobic, which leads to severe problems in the adhesion, causing poor mechanical properties [ 27 ]. Therefore, it is very important to promote the adhesion between a hydrophilic wood and a hydrophobic thermoplastic polymer, which can be done by using coupling agents [ 28 , 29 ], various surface treatments [ 23 , 24 , 30 ], thermal, or chemical modification of wood [ 25 , 27 , 31 ].
Some researchers used modified HDPE or polypropylene to manufacture plywood [ 32 , 33 , 34 ]. However, most of these approaches result in an obvious increase in cost and complexity of the preparation process. An alternative way of enhancing the physical and mechanical properties of plastic-bonded plywood is the modification of fabrication conditions, having an obvious advantage of low cost and easy processing [ 19 ].
Most of the mentioned studies used poplar, rarely eucalyptus or oak for bonding with thermoplastic polymers. No literature is available on using alder wood veneer.
Alder is one of the most promising under-utilized wood species in Europe. Due to its workability and properties, alder can be considered as a suitable material for plywood manufacturing.
Currently, producers of plywood in Ukraine often replace the traditional birch raw material with the alder raw material. This work presents the first effort to develop and evaluate composites based on alder veneers and HDPE film. Rotary-cut alder wood veneer Alnus glutinosa Goertn.
To minimize the influence of wood structure defects on the results of the experiment, the veneer sheets were selected and evaluated for the production of plywood panels. The veneer sheets were visually checked, and sheets without shocks, cracks, curling, and colors of more or less uniform thickness were selected.
Observation on the wood appearance did not show any visible defects. HDPE film with a thickness of 0. The plastic film was cut into the same dimensions as the veneers. UF and PF resins were also used for the comparison. Three-layer plywood samples were prepared. One sheet of HDPE film was incorporated between two veneer sheets, which were laid with the directions of the fiber perpendicular to each other.
The influence of hot-pressing pressure 0. The pressing temperature depends on the adhesive. The pressing conditions for manufacturing of plywood samples are given in Table 1. For the comparison, the plywood samples using UF and PF adhesives were produced according to the regimens usually used in practice. UF plywood samples were manufactured at the hot-pressing conditions: pressure of 1. PF plywood samples were produced at a pressure of 1. The adhesive mixture was applied to the surface of the veneer by hand using a roller, and the open assembly time was about 5 min.
The dosage of HDPE film at a thickness of 0. After hot pressing, the plywood samples were subjected to a cold-press stage that was performed at room temperature for 5 min, which was used to reduce the distortion and stress of the plywood.
Three replicate panels were manufactured for all the conditions and control. After bonding, the plywood panels were air conditioned for 5 days. Thickness, density, bending strength MOR , and modulus of elasticity MOE in bending, shear strength, water absorption, and thickness swelling of plywood samples were determined according to the standards [ 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 ].
Physical properties of the samples, water absorption WA and thickness swelling TS , were conducted in accordance with EN [ 39 ]. Before testing, the weight and thickness of each sample were measured. Conditioned samples of each type of plywood panel were fully immersed in distilled water at room temperature for 2, 24, 48, and 72 h.
The samples were removed from the water, patted dry, and then measured again. The samples were weighed to the nearest 0. Furthermore, the measurement of the core temperature that can be achieved inside the veneer package under given pressing conditions of plywood samples was undertaken.
Temperature changes were measured using thermocouples connected to an PTK digital multichannel device. In addition, micromorphological properties were evaluated by microscopic imaging. The influence of different factors on physical and mechanical properties of plywood was analyzed using ANOVA analysis.
The results are summarized in Table 2 and Table 3. The observations made in this study and the results of the statistical analysis indicated that both mechanical and physical properties were significantly influenced by the various parameters. ANOVAs of the variable parameters on the mechanical and physical properties of plywood panels.
The aim of the veneer thickness measurement was to find effects of the different conditions of pressing on the tolerance of a pressed plywood panel. In the case of using HDPE film as adhesive in the production of plywood, it is very important to choose the pressing parameters so that the thickness of finished plywood is within acceptable limits, to avoid unnecessary losses of wood raw material.
The average values of the thickness, density, and moisture content of plywood samples, as well as the compression ratio, are given in Table 4. UF: urea—formaldehyde. PF: phenol—formaldehyde. ANOVA analysis showed that the temperature, pressure, and time of the hot pressing, as well as the type of adhesive used, significantly affects the thickness and density of the HDPE-bonded plywood panels. It can be seen that the average thickness of HDPE-bonded plywood panels made at different hot-pressing temperatures, pressures, and times is not smaller but even exceeds the thickness of control plywood using UF and PF adhesives Table 4 , which is essential for the industrial application of this technology.
The smallest thickness 3. The largest thickness 4. Primarily, this can be explained by the high hot-pressing pressures of plywood samples and the increased adhesive dosage in the case of using UF and PF adhesives. This is because at a higher hot-pressing temperature and longer time of pressing, the wood becomes more plastic and more easily compressed.
Of course, if the thickness of the plywood samples decreases with the increase in temperature and time of pressing, then it is natural that the density of such samples, in contrast, increases Figure 2.
Nevertheless, according to the F values Table 2 , it can be seen that, in the ranking from highest to lowest, the hot-pressing temperature has the greatest influence on the thickness and density of the plywood samples, after that an interaction of hot-pressing temperature and hot-pressing time and finally hot-pressing time.
Relationship between the thickness and density of plywood and hot-pressing parameters. The hot-pressing pressure also significantly influences the thickness and density of plywood samples. With an increase in pressing pressure from 0. Between the pressures of 0. Nevertheless, plywood panels containing HDPE film were pressed at a lower pressure than the control panels Table 1.
In this case, the average compression ratio of plywood made using HDPE film was smaller—5. In addition, its compression ratio will be smaller because less moisture was brought with the adhesive into the veneer package, and such package, in turn, is less densified wood is deformed more heavily.
In this study, the values of plywood thicknesses were 4. Average values of the dry and wet shear strength of plywood panels are presented in Table 5. The quality of the bonding of the thermoplastic adhesive and the wood surface depends on the processing details of the adhesive bonding, such as the porosity of the wood surface, the viscosity of the molten adhesive, the applied pressure, and the processing duration [ 41 ].
Shear strength values of plywood panels pressed using different types of adhesive and pressing conditions. Figure 3 shows the effects of pressing temperature and time on the shear strength of plywood samples.
The obtained strength ranged from 0. In this study, the bonding strength mean values obtained from the samples of HDPE-bonded plywood panels were above the limit value 1. In other work [ 7 ], it was also found that lower temperatures did not promote an adequate melting of the HDPE.
Environmentally-Friendly High-Density Polyethylene-Bonded Plywood Panels
Applicationctober8, ; Serial No. In the manufacture of plywood sheets, the edges of the plywood'sheets are trimmed as a final operation to bring the sheetsto size and to provide straight edges on the sheets. Thus the strips that are removed from the plywood sheets are waste material. In the manufacture of plywood the veneer sheets are placed on both sides of a core sheet and it is necessary that-the veneersheets overlap the core sheet at the edges toinsure bonding of the veneer sheetsthroughout the entire extent of the plyboard. Thus the edges of a plyboard are irregular in shape because of the projecting veneer sheets.
For some years now, wood has received an increasing amount of attention in the construction industry. However, it is the versatility of wood that serves as the primary impetus for its widespread use. In the case of the manufacture of furniture, wall coverings, ceilings, and even floors, the use of boards is an economical and functional way of incorporating wood into buildings. There are several options for wooden boards on the market, and each uses a different manufacturing process involving fibers, particles, fragments, or sheets, resulting in specific uses.
Wooden Boards: Differences Between MDF, MDP, Plywood, and OSB
Costs 4. Figure Figure a. Figure b. TABLE Much of the information presented in this document is based on detailed information documented in supporting memoranda. Section 1. The EPA conducted a survey' information collection request of the industry in to collect base year information from PCWP facilities related to their;manufacturing operations and air pollution controls.
Classifying wood for import and export
Both MDF and Plywood can be very tough on the cutting tools. Below is a link to some tools specially designed for cutting MDF and Plywood along with some helpful tips on how to choose a saw blade for cutting MDF and Plywood. The rest of this article explains why MDF and Plywood have such a high wear on cutting tools and the differences bewteen the two materials. MDF is much harder on tools than plywood is for a variety of reasons.
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Wooden Boards: Differences Between MDF, MDP, Plywood, and OSB
Brands : Maschinenmesser. Refine your search Locate the companies on a map. PRBRUSH is a Russian company specialising in the production of fashion accessories, particularly with regard to contract manufacturing.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: small capacity/small budget semi-automatic osb production line making machine from waste veneer
The potential use of wood residues for energy generation 6. In mechanical wood processing the greater part of the thermal energy requirements can be met from the available residues, in fact, the sawmilling industry has the potential to produce both a surplus of heat and electricity and therefore could support other energy deficient conversion processes in an integrated complex producing, for example, lumber, plywood and particleboard or, in the rural areas, to supplying energy for the needs of the surrounding community. Over the years many mills have regarded wood waste as a troublesome by-product of the sawmilling operation, resulting in its being disposed of as landfill or incinerated in Wigwam burners or the like. However, both have recently become contentious environmental issues and, combined with the rising costs of energy, mill owners have been forced to seriously consider the merits of using the residues as an alternative fuel source this has also coincided with the increase in demand for the residues as furnish for paper-pulp and panel board manufacture, due to the rising cost and increased competition for solid wood. Nowadays most wood processing plants being built in developed countries incorporate hog fuel burners in order to safeguard against certain and costly fossil fuel supply. However, little use is made of the energy potential of sawmilling residues in developing countries, this being partly due to the minimal use of kiln drying and the investment capital involved in the installation of the heat generating plant.
Cutting MDF and Plywood
Thermoplastic films exhibit good potential to be used as adhesives for the production of veneer-based composites. This work presents the first effort to develop and evaluate composites based on alder veneers and high-density polyethylene HDPE film. The effects of these variables on the core-layer temperature during the hot pressing of multiplywood panels using various adhesives were also studied. UF and PF adhesives were used for the comparison. The findings of this work indicate that formaldehyde-free HDPE film adhesive gave values of mechanical properties of alder plywood panels that are comparable to those obtained with traditional UF and PF adhesives, even though the adhesive dosage and pressing pressure were lower than when UF and PF adhesives were used. The obtained bonding strength values of HDPE-bonded alder plywood panels ranged from 0.
Catherine M. Since the U. Congress passed the Endangered Species Act in , and subsequently listed the spotted owl as an endangered species in , the debate over the appropriate management of public and private forests has continued at a fevered pitch in the Pacific Northwest. The listing of the spotted owl has led to the loss of tens of thousands of jobs in the logging and forest products industry, which has leveled a heavy toll on many rural communities in Oregon, Washington, and California that have relied for decades on a robust forest products industry to sustain their economies.
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Environmental Protection Agency is charged by Congress with pro- tecting the Nation's land, air, and water resources, tinder a mandate of national environmental laws, the Agency strives to formulate and implement actions lead- ing to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. To meet this mandate, EPA's research program is providing data and technical support for solving environmental pro- blems today and building a science knowledge base necessary to manage our eco- logical resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect our health, and pre- vent or reduce environmental risks in the future. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory is the Agency's center for investigation of technological and management approaches for reducing risks from threats to human health and the environment.
Plywood is made by glueing together thin sheets of wood veneer. The thickness of an individual sheet is 0. The sheets are composed so that the directions of the grain of the superimposed sheets are usually perpendicular to each other.
Только и делов - вывести человека на свежий воздух. Халохот отчаянно озирался, но Беккера нигде не было. Сотни людей стояли на коленях перед алтарем, принимая причастие.
Может быть, Беккер был среди. Халохот внимательно оглядывал согнутые спины.
- Это составляло половину того, что у него было, и раз в десять больше настоящей стоимости кольца. Росио подняла брови.
- Это очень большие деньги. - Конечно. Договорились. Девушка покачала головой. - Как бы я хотела сказать .
Но одно не давало Фонтейну покоя - то, что Стратмор решил прибегнуть к услугам Халохота. Тот, конечно, был мастером своего дела, но наемник остается наемником. Можно ли ему доверять.