Plant building glass and glass finishing materials
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Bathroom Fixtures. Introduction to Construction Project Management. Learn everything about building construction. Glass has been a fascinating material to humankind since it was first made in about BC. At first thought to possess magical properties, glass has come a long way. It is one of the most versatile and oldest materials in the building industry. From its humble beginnings as a window pane in luxury houses of Pompeii to sophisticated structural members in new age buildings, its role in architecture has evolved over the years.
In prehistoric times, Obsidian Naturally occurring glass found near volcanic regions and fulgurite glass formed naturally after lightning strikes sand were used to make weapons. Glass blowing was discovered in the 1st century in Europe, this revolutionized the glass making industry. The technique spread throughout the Roman Empire. Production of Clear glass, by introduction of manganese dioxide, saw glass being used for architectural purposes. Cast glass windows began to appear in the most important buildings and villas in Rome and Pompeii.
Over the next 1, years glass making spread through all of Europe and Middle East. In 7th century Anglo Saxon glass was used in churches and cathedrals By 11th century sheet glass was made by the crown glass process. In this process, the glassblower would spin molten glass at the end of a rod until it flattened into a disk. The disk would then be cut into panes. By 13th century, this technique was perfected in Venice.
Stain glass windows were used in gothic renaissance and baroque architecture from the 11th to the 18th century. The examples of stunning patterns created by using colorful glass are immortalized by great artists all over the world. The Crown glass process was used up to the midth century. These were completely flat and did not have any optical distortions. But glass was still an item of luxury as it took large resources, brilliant skill and immense energy to be produced.
In Pilkington and Bickerstaff introduced the revolutionary float glass process to the world. This method gave the sheet uniform thickness and very flat surfaces. Modern windows are made from float glass. From the beginning of 20th century modern architecture has been instrumental in mass production of concrete, glass and steel buildings in the factories we call cities.
This ideology helped accommodate housing needs of the burgeoning middle class. Glass and steel construction have become the symbol of development in many countries, where people tend to see these buildings as symbols of affluence and luxury. Once a rare and prized art, manufacturing glass has become a common industry thanks to the Pilkington process. Traditionally glass was made by blowing liquid glass derived by melting sand calcium oxide and sodium carbonate to extremely high temperatures and the cooling the liquid to the desired shape.
Since a few thousand years the recipe to make glass has been the same. Pilkington process: Large quantities of raw materials clear sand, calcium oxide and sodium carbonate are brought to the glass production plant. They are then weighed and mixed in the right proportion. Certain admixtures are added to the batch to give the glass appropriate proprieties or color.
The mixture is then heated in a gas fired furnace or electric smelter, pot furnace or kiln. Quartz sand without additives becomes glass at a temperature of 2, degrees Celsius Adding sodium carbonate soda reduces the temperature needed to make glass to 1, degrees Celsius. A homogeneous mixture of molten glass is then formed. This mixture is then floated on molten tin to form glass of desired thickness. After the hot end of the process is over, the glass is set to cool. The way in which the glass is cooled determines its strength.
It has to be cooled after maintaining a suitable temperature i. If it cooled over an extremely short duration of time the glass can become too brittle to handle.
Annealing glass is critical to its durability Glass making is an energy extensive process. One tonne of glass production requires 4 gigajoules of energy. That is as much energy as a wind mill produces in a day!
This much energy can also be used to light over homes. Albeit they are not constructed with glass. Its transparency can be permanently altered by adding admixtures to the initial batch mix. By the advent of technology clear glass panels used in buildings can be made opaque. Electro chromatic glazing U value : The U-value is the measure of how much heat is transferred through the window. The lower the U-value the better the insulation properties of the glass— the better it is at keeping the heat or cold out.
This trapping leads to more heating and a higher resultant temperature. It can be blown, drawn or pressed. It is possible to obtain glass with diversified properties- clear, colorless, diffused and stained.
Glass can also bewelded by fusion. Unlike the original single glazing or old double glazing, energy-efficient glazing incorporates coated low-emissivity glass to prevent heat escaping through the windows. The air barrier also enhances acoustic control. Float Glass : Float glass is also called soda lime glass or clear glass.
This is produced by annealing the molten glass and is clear and flat. Its modulus of rupture is psi. Stronger than Rocky Balboa taking punches from psi punches man Ivan Drago. It is available in standard thickness ranging from 2mm to 20mm. It has too much transparency and can cause glare. It is used in making ca nopies, shop fronts, glass blocks, railing partitions, etc. Tinted Glass: Certain additions to the glass batch mix can add color to the clear glass without compromising its strength.
Iron oxide is added to give glass a green tint; sulphar in different concentrations can make the glass yellow, red or black. Copper sulphate can turn it blue. Toughened Glass This type of glass is tempered, may have distortions and low visibility but it breaks into small dice-like pieces at modulus of rupture of psi. Hence it is used in making fire resistant doors etc.
They are available in same weight and thickness range as float glass. Laminated Glass: This type of glass is made by sandwiching glass panels within a protective layer. It is heavier than normal glass and may cause optical distortions as well. Used in glass facades, aquariums, bridges, staircases, floor slabs, etc. Shatterproof glass : By adding a polyvinyl butyral layer, shatter proof glass is made.
This type of glass does not from sharp edged pieces even when broken. Used in skylight, window, flooring, etc Extra clean glass: This type of glass is hydrophilic i. The water moves over them without leaving any marks and photocatylitic i. Double Glazed Units: These are made by providing air gap between two glass panes in order to reduce the heat loss and gain. Green, energy efficient glass can reduce this impact. Chromatic glass: This type of glass can control daylight and transparency effectively.
These glass are available in three forms- photochromatic light sensitive lamination on glass , thermochromatic heat sensitive lamination on glass and electrochromatic light sensitive glass the transparency of which can be controlled by electricity switch.
It can be used in meeting rooms and ICUs Glass wool: Glass wool is a thermal insulation that consists of intertwined and flexible glass fibers, which causes it to "package" air, and consequently make good insulating materials.
Glass wool can be used as filler or insulators in buildings, also for soundproofing. Glass blocks: Hollow glass wall blocks are manufactured as two separate halves and, while the glass is still molten, the two pieces are pressed together and annealed.
The resulting glass blocks will have a partial vacuum at the hollow center. Glass bricks provide visual obscuration while admitting light. Polycarbonate: This elastic is times stronger than glass, is resistant to most chemicals, is twice as lighter than class, has high abrasion and impact resistance.
It can transmit as much light as glass without many distortions. Applications include window, green house glazing etc. Acrylic: Acrylic is made of thermo plasticsis weather resistant, is 5 times stronger than glass but is prone to scratches. It has excellent optics, is softer than glass but can accumulate a lot of dust. This is extensively used in to make playhouses, green house etc. Glass-reinforced plastics are also used to produce house building components such as roofing laminate, canopies etc.
The material is light and easy to handle. It is used in the construction of composite housing and insulation to reduce heat loss. ETFE : Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene is a plastic with high strength and corrosion resistance. It has high energy radiation resistance properties, it is strong, self cleaning and recyclable. The versatility of glass keeps on increasing as scientists find new applications to this wonder material.
Glass is now being used in the building industry as insulation material, structural component, external glazing material, cladding material; it is used to make delicate looking fenestrations on facades as well as conventional windows.
The concrete dome
Polished cast mirror glass and drawn window glass were the most common types of glass used in houses in the s and early s, until the rise of double glazing. The British glass manufacturer Pilkington developed a new production process to create glass with a smooth and uniform surface, called float glass. The first example of double vitrage in an apartment building in Brussels was published in the architectural press.
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Building with glass
In the s Freyssinet made a major contribution to concrete technology with the introduction of pretensioning. In this process, the reinforcing wires were stretched in tension, and the concrete was poured around them; when the concrete hardened, the wires were released, and the member acquired an upward deflection and was entirely in compression. When the service load was applied, the member deflected downward to a flat position, remaining entirely in compression, and it did not develop the tension cracks that plague ordinary reinforced concrete. Widespread application of pretensioning was not made until after Shell construction in concrete also began in the s; the first example was a very thin 6 centimetres hemispherical shell for a planetarium in Jena, Germany, spanning 25 metres 82 feet. In an octagonal ribbed shell dome with a span of 66 metres feet was built to house a market hall in Leipzig. Many variations of thin shells were devised for use in industrial buildings. The shell emerged as a major form of long-span concrete structure after World War II. Elisha Graves Otis developed the first safe steam-powered roped elevators with toothed guide rails and catches in the late s. In the second industrial age, environmental technologies developed rapidly.
Types of building materials
Glass production involves two main methods — the float glass process that produces sheet glass, and glassblowing that produces bottles and other containers. Broadly, modern glass container factories are three-part operations: the batch house , the hot end , and the cold end. The batch house handles the raw materials; the hot end handles the manufacture proper—the forehearth, forming machines, and annealing ovens; and the cold end handles the product-inspection and packaging equipment. Batch processing is one of the initial steps of the glass-making process.
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It is light, durable, strong and easily managed. Some building materials like cold rolled steel framing are considered modern methods of construction, over the traditionally slower methods like blockwork and timber. Fiberglass is a combination, primarily, of glass and sand. Concrete Block Construction.
From simple to complex, finishing systems designed around your objectives. Explore our systems and find out the best solution according to your needs. We believe technological research and continuous innovation to be essential for the achievement of rewarding results. First and foremost, our goal is to be a consultant and partner. Cefla Finishing customers range from big names in the building and furniture sector, including the aerospace and automotive industries.
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Good collection for Architect's who wants to learn the art of sustainable built environment. Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Sustainable Building - Design Manual : sustainable building design practices. The first volume of Sustainable Building design manual focuses on policy and regulatory mechanisms, while the second volume expounds on the process of green architecture by combining concepts and technologies with best practices for each integral design component. These serve as a basis for assessing building performance and meeting sustainability goals through appropriate strategies and regularity controls. Case studies of Gurgaon and a set of real-time case studies from Spain and the UK are dealt in the first volume.
Bathroom Fixtures. Introduction to Construction Project Management. Learn everything about building construction.
Combining transparency, durability and design, sustainable habitat glass contributes to the aesthetic appearance and energy efficiency of residential and tertiary buildings while also improving user comfort. The performance of glazed walls depends on three criteria: thermal insulation, input of natural light and control of solar gain. Effective thermal insulation ensures occupant comfort in summer and winter, and eradicates the cold wall effect.
glass and glazing
Account Options Sign in. Fifteenth census of the United States : Manufactures, , Volume 3. United States.
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