Paragraph operations are made directly in the full article text panel located to the left. Paragraph operations include:. Zone operations are made directly in the full article text panel located to the left. Zone operations include:. The illustrations we give in another page, of some of the industries carried on at Mr. Alcock's establishment in Russell street, cannot fail to be extremely interesting.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Video: A behind-the-scenes glimpse into how this newspaper gets made
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Caramel manufactory, SIA
Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. Typically, paper has been made from "pulping" or crushing fibrous plant or woody material into its cellulose components using either friction or chemicals.
During this process the waste, or non-cellulose material, is eliminated, as is the water, which is removed using heat and pressure, resulting in paper. However, the modern process of turning pulp into paper was born in China during roughly the earliest part of the Common Era.
When knowledge of this enterprise migrated to Europe near the end of the first millennium, the raw material of choice for paper-making became animal skins and the product was called parchment paper.
Its high cost spurred a search for a cheaper raw material, namely old cotton and linen rags. By the 19th century, trends in the Western World — including rising literacy rates and the proliferation of high-circulation newspapers — spurred a drive to find an even less expensive raw material, and wood was chosen.
European largely German papermakers developed machines to break down logs from various tree species into pulps and also dry and flatten the pulps using a series of rollers that grew progressively larger and faster. This allowed for the mass production of many types of pulps and papers, of which newsprint was by far the least expensive.
The former were turned into an ever-widening array of items, most importantly personal hygiene products such as tissues and toilet paper. During its nascent years, the industry was relatively tiny, diversified and localized.
Initially, the need for paper was met by importing it from the United States. They located there to be near their raw material rags and markets, and most were erected by newspaper proprietors. The first of these enterprises was built over the course of — by James Brown. His Argenteuil Paper Manufactory in St. First, the industry paradoxically both diversified and specialized. It began churning out much larger volumes of a wider variety of products, including book paper, printing paper, wallpaper and wrapping paper.
At the same time, the demand for newsprint was growing exponentially, and it spurred a number of entrepreneurs to focus exclusively on manufacturing this type of paper. They were eyed most intensively by producers in the Northeast US, whose concerns were deepening over their rapidly dwindling supplies of pulpwood trees.
The same was true in less well-endowed provinces, provincially those in the Maritimes. When the Ontario government began executing such deals with mill developers in the s, they set a precedent of landlord-tenant relationships between the politicians and the industry that other jurisdictions would soon emulate.
During this period the Canadian pulp and paper industry enjoyed a prolonged period of meteoric growth roughly until the mids but then endured a sustained downturn. The good times were largely a function of the dramatic expansion of the newsprint industry, and its boom was fueled by numerous factors.
These years saw the industry undergo a major consolidation that affected its behaviour. Initially, it was made up of a large number of smaller firms, but gradually it came to be dominated by a few behemoths. The few newsprint companies in British Columbia — Pacific Mills and Powell River — operated virtually independently of their eastern rivals.
There were a few exceptions to this rule, namely the newsprint companies which were owned in whole or in part by American newspapers. Similarly, the New York Times owned roughly half the enormous mill that was constructed in Kapuskasing , Ontario, in the mids. Nevertheless, the industry remained heavily weighted towards a few dominant players, and this boded well for its efforts to operate as a cartel, which recurred throughout this period.
In the mids, the newsprint industry began a downturn that lasted well into the next decade. Massive amounts of money were needed to erect the enormous new pulp and paper plants and the often ancillary power-generating facilities. This dynamic transformed the industry from one dominated by family-owned firms to those that relied on the ability to obtain financial backing, principally from the US.
As a result, the industry became egregiously overcapitalized, encumbered by huge fixed borrowing charges, and largely controlled by American interests. By the late s, the situation had stabilized, but the industry was still suffering from significant overcapacity.
While the newsprint makers lorded over the Canadian pulp and paper industry, its other sectors which made items such as cardboard and pulp wadding enjoyed far more stability and prosperity during these years. They produced pulps and non-newsprint grades of paper almost exclusively for the "home market," which consisted of Canada and the British Empire and was protected by favourable tariffs. Able to exert highly effective control over these areas, as a group these non-newsprint producers remained relatively small yet profitable, and each sector was dominated by a few key firms.
For example, nearly all the capacity in the fine paper industry including both writing and book paper lay in the hands of E. The early years of the Second World War triggered nearly three and a half decades of practically uninterrupted good times for Canada and its pulp and paper industry. This policy dictated that the only means by which a company could increase its capacity was by upgrading its existing facilities, which entailed adding ever-larger machines and also speeding up the rates at which they produced newsprint.
This the industry did with remarkable effectiveness. Whereas it had the capacity to produce roughly 4. Despite this supremacy, newsprint makers also faced certain challenges that only grew over time. For example, they faced increasing competition from producers in the Southern US and Scandinavia, as well as rising production costs.
As a result, the industry intermittently suffered through difficult times, which entailed temporary mill closures and shutdowns and the steady erosion of its international predominance. At the same time, production of other types of papers in Canada grew modestly.
Producers of packaging papers, for example, augmented their operations largely through mergers and acquisitions, and a few dominant players emerged. This expansion was fueled by the barriers that existed to entering the newsprint industry, the interest in exploiting previously unused tree species and the drive by foreign interests to secure dependable and relatively inexpensive sources of raw pulp.
Most important, however, was the nearly obsessive push by several provincial governments to exploit their control over crown resources to foster economic development, specifically in the form of new pulp mills. In the late s, for instance, the Nova Scotia government convinced a leading Swedish pulp and paper maker, Stora Kopparberg now Stora Enso , to construct a major sulphite pulp mill in Port Hawkesbury by offering it access to the local supply of pulpwood.
These years also saw the pulp and paper industry establish major operations in the Prairies, principally in Saskatchewan and Alberta , and these projects were backed by both domestic and foreign interests.
The Canadian pulp and paper industry enjoyed buoyant periods during these years, but its challenges continued to mount. These efforts produced a half-dozen new pulp mills, most of which made kraft pulp, and were erected by American, Japanese and Canadian interests. It quickly gained significant political traction, and led to the enactment of increasingly stringent environmental laws at both the provincial and national levels. For the industry, this meant much higher production costs but a much "greener" modus operandi.
Other factors created huge hurdles for all Canadian pulp and paper producers to surmount. Its production costs also increased dramatically during this period because of rapidly rising prices for both energy and labour. Moreover, its competitors both old the US and Europe and new Asia and the developing world generally enjoyed much lower production costs and the added advantage of utilizing the latest technology.
For the newsprint sector, these changes and its inadvisable business strategy were particularly devastating. Moreover, the industry demonstrated a remarkable blindness to changing trends in paper consumption and an unshakeable faith that its salvation lay in creating ever-larger enterprises. Abitibi Power and Paper was the best example of this line of thinking.
It first acquired Price Brothers in the mids, and roughly two decades later merged with Stone-Consolidated to form Abitibi-Consolidated. Amidst the difficulties that beset the entire industry, however, there were some bright spots.
In the main it remained profitable, and it invested in new, vastly more efficient technology, such as thermomechanical and chemi-thermomechanical pulping processes the former uses heat and friction and the latter chemicals, heat and friction to extract the fibres. The first few years of the millennium were prosperous for the Canadian industry; however, a host of factors combined to deal the industry, and in particular the newsprint sector, a blow that left it practically dead.
Moreover, pulp production in the developing world, particularly South America, exploded. Then, in the Canadian dollar shot above its US counterpart and the American housing market crashed, while the Canada-US softwood lumber dispute intensified to the point where it bankrupted many sawmills which had been the main suppliers of wood chips to nearby pulp and paper producers.
Not even one decade into the new millennium, pulp and paper mills were closing on what seemed like a weekly basis. Unlike previous downturns, this one saw many of the shuttered enterprises being gutted of their equipment; they would never operate again. As the dust settles on the havoc that rocked the industry during most of the 21st century so far, the picture is still unclear as to what lies ahead.
Despite all its ailments, the industry remains a mainstay of the Canadian economy, particularly in remote and northern hinterland communities. Moreover, most of the firms that have survived the travails of the recent past have emerged from the ruins stronger than ever.
New ideas and innovations also hold out hope for the future. Their website offers background information about economic and sustainability issues related to their industry. Search The Canadian Encyclopedia. Remember me. I forgot my password. Why sign up?
Create Account. Accessed 10 January In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Article published February 07, ; Last Edited November 30, The Canadian Encyclopedia , s. Article by Mark Kuhlberg. The pulp and paper industry consists of manufacturing enterprises that convert predominantly woody plant material into a wide variety of pulps, papers and paperboards.
The Canadian industry began in the s, and has undergone revolutionary changes over the years. Most recently, the move from newsprint to electronic media caused the industry to decline; however, pulp and paper remains a fundamental part of the Canadian economy, especially for remote and northern communities.
Harvesting the trees. Cut into logs and taken to the mill. Machinery turns the wood chips into pulp. Pulp is mixed with water and poured onto a long machine.
The fibres bond to one another at the dry end of the machine. Researchers perform tests at each stage artwork by Claire Tremblay.
Previous Next. Mark Kuhlberg.
Online Library of Liberty
Available in custom designed boxes filled with 2 ply tissues contain , and sheets; in 36, 40, and 50 boxes packing in cartons. All tissue boxes are s.. Our standard sizes are two ply with sheet size 23x22cm and the roll lengths are 15 and 25 meters.
Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. Typically, paper has been made from "pulping" or crushing fibrous plant or woody material into its cellulose components using either friction or chemicals. During this process the waste, or non-cellulose material, is eliminated, as is the water, which is removed using heat and pressure, resulting in paper. However, the modern process of turning pulp into paper was born in China during roughly the earliest part of the Common Era.
Long Length Serrated Grip
Extensive and legally valid database containing all companies, associations and enterprises, as well as foreign representations that are registered in Latvia. The user is forbidden to use any automatic systems or equipment robots in order to access the system without a written approval from Lursoft. The information in the databases is of informative nature and it has no legal power. Lursoft does not bear any responsibility for actions or decisions that are based on the service provided. Type in the search text Search.
Mitee-Bite Products has introduced the TalonGrip long length serrated grip. The new grips were produced as a "drop fit" into the original 6" TalonGrip jaw set and provide line contact t Arnold, a manufacturer of laser technologies, recently celebrated years at its headquarters in Ravensburg, Germany. The event included various presentations, such as Development of Technologies, L
Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data. Partial contents: v. Robson and John M. This volume has been published with the assistance of a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.
Headline News. Which country leads the world in innovation? The Manufacturer: Top 10 news stories of Fixed vs mobile — let the robot wars begin! The Manufacturer Podcast: That was the year that was. Life-saving hospital tech in next phase thanks to UK prototype specialist.
Blundell's Colour Manufactory, Spring Row. A man of the name of John Wadsworth, was attempting to fix some machinery, with the nature of which, it not being within his department, he was imperfectly acquainted. Owing to his unskilfulness his right arm became entangled with one of the principal wheels, his hand was laid open, and the little finger torn nearly off. He was taken in the Infirmary where the finger was amputated, and he is doing well. An ordinary weeks work to consist of 56 hours. Divided thus: Start at 6am and work till 8am..
I S XOL. Country orders promptly attended to. Depot for Davidson's Cheap Music. Coats, 3s.
Security paper producer.
SPM is the leading and oldest manufacturer of security paper products in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The company was founded in by Czech shareholders and continues a 50 years-old tradition of security paper production. Security paper contains different security features against counterfeiting with an objective to protect documents or printed material. Currently we produce more than 1 different types of security paper varying in technical specifications.
Dennis G. Purchases of American reed organs between and exceeded that of pianos by almost two to one. Manufacturing the Muse is the story of the reed organ, a centerpiece in American parlors, churches, and gathering places for nearly a century.
Herman and Noam Chomsky , in which the authors propose that the mass communication media of the U. The book was revised 20 years after its first publication to take account of developments such as the fall of the Soviet Union. There has been debate about how the Internet has changed the public's access to information since Chomsky credits the origin of the book to the impetus of Alex Carey , the Australian social psychologist , to whom Herman and he dedicated the book. The propaganda model for the manufacture of public consent describes five editorially distorting filters, which are applied to the reporting of news in mass communications media:.
Antebellum Period summary: The Antebellum Period in American history is generally considered to be the period before the civil war and after the War of , although some historians expand it to all the years from the adoption of the Constitution in to the beginning of the Civil War. It was characterized by the rise of abolition and the gradual polarization of the country between abolitionists and supporters of slavery. The annexation of new territory and western expansion saw the reinforcement of American individualism and of Manifest Destiny, the idea that Americans and the institutions of the U. In the South, cotton plantations were very profitable, at least until overplanting leached most of the nutrients from the soil. Plantation owners were able to obtain large tracts of land for little money, particularly after the Indian Removal Act was passed in These plantations depended on a large force of slave labor to cultivate and harvest the crop—most white farmers in the 19th century wanted and were able to obtain their own farms as the U.
- Всего лишь какие-то обрывки, в полном виде -. Фонтейн медленно кивнул и улыбнулся одними уголками губ. Он искал глазами Сьюзан Флетчер, но она уже стояла прямо перед экраном, на котором крупным планом было видно лицо Дэвида Беккера. - Дэвид.