Manufactory harsh fabrics made of chemical fibers
Download PDF Version. A spinning system in which yarn is made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers with compressed air. The porosity, or the ease with which air passes through material. Air permeability determines such factors as the wind resistance of sailcloth, the air resistance of parachute cloth, and the efficiency of various types of air filtration media. It is also a measure of warmness or coolness of a fabric.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Making Rayon Fiber - Artificial silk, chemical experiment!
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- Synthetic Fibers: The Manufacturing Process and Risks to Human and Environment
- What Is Viscose: Understanding Your Fabrics
- Q and A: What Is Viscose? What is Rayon?
- Fiber Selection for the Production of Nonwovens
- Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
- How Viscose Rayon Fabric Masquerades as Bamboo Clothing
Synthetic Fibers: The Manufacturing Process and Risks to Human and Environment
The textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries include establishments that process fiber into fabric and fabric into clothing and other textile products. While most apparel manufacturers worldwide rely on people to cut and sew pieces of fabric together, U. Because the apparel industry has moved mainly to other countries with cheaper labor costs, that which remains in the United States must be extremely labor efficient to compete effectively with foreign manufacturers.
Goods and services. The establishments in these industries produce a variety of goods, some of which are sold to the consumer, while others are sold as inputs to the manufacture of other products. Natural and synthetic fibers are used to produce threads and yarns—which may be woven, knitted, or pressed or otherwise bonded into fabrics—as well as rope, cordage, and twine. Coatings and finishes are applied to the fabrics to enhance the decorative patterns woven into the fabric, or to make the fabric more durable, stain-resistant, or have other properties.
Fabrics are used to make many products, including awnings, tents, carpets and rugs, as well as a variety of linens—curtains, tablecloths, towels, and sheets.
However, the principal use of fabrics is to make apparel. Establishments in the apparel manufacturing industry produce many knitted clothing products, such as hosiery and socks, shirts, sweaters, and underwear. They also produce many cut-and-sew clothing items like dresses, suits, shirts, and trousers. Industry organization. There are three individual industries covered—textile mills, textile product mills, and apparel manufacturing.
Textile mills provide the raw material to make apparel and textile products. They take natural and synthetic materials, such as cotton and polyester, and transform them into fiber, yarn, and thread.
Yarns are strands of fibers in a form ready for weaving, knitting, or otherwise intertwining to form a textile fabric. They form the basis for most textile production and commonly are made of cotton, wool, or a synthetic fiber such as polyester. Yarns also can be made of thin strips of plastic, paper, or metal. To produce spun yarn, natural fibers such as cotton and wool must first be processed to remove impurities and give products the desired texture and durability, as well as other characteristics.
After this initial cleaning stage, the fibers are spun into yarn. Textile mills then go on to produce fabric by means of weaving and knitting. Workers in weaving mills use complex, automated looms to transform yarns into cloth. Looms weave or interlace two yarns, so they cross each other at right angles to form fabric.
Knitting mills use automated machines to produce fabric of interlocking loops of one or more yarns. At any time during the production process, a number of processes, called finishing, may be performed on the fabric. These processes—which include dyeing, bleaching, and stonewashing, among others—may be performed by the textile mill or at a separate finishing mill. Finishing encompasses chemical or mechanical treatments performed on fiber, yarn, or fabric to improve appearance, texture, or performance.
Textile product mills convert raw textiles into finished products other than apparel. Some of the items made in this sector include household items, such as carpets and rugs, towels, curtains and sheets, cord and twine, furniture and automotive upholstery, and industrial belts and fire hoses. Because the process of converting raw fibers into finished textile products is complex, most textile mills specialize. The apparel manufacturing industry transforms fabrics produced by textile manufacturers into clothing and accessories.
The apparel industry traditionally has consisted mostly of production workers who performed the cutting and sewing functions in an assembly line. This industry remains labor-intensive, despite advances in technology and workplace practices. Although many workers still perform this work in the United States, the industry increasingly contracts out its production work to foreign suppliers to take advantage of lower labor costs in other countries.
Many of the remaining production workers work in teams. For example, sewing machine operators are organized into production "modules. Each module is responsible for its own performance, and individuals usually receive compensation based on the team's performance.
Recent developments. The textile and apparel manufacturing industries are among the most labor-intensive manufacturing industries, and therefore an increasing amount of textile products is produced by foreign suppliers. Nonetheless, some textile manufacturing still takes place in the United States. To remain competitive, however, domestic manufacturers rely on being extremely labor-efficient. Advanced machinery is boosting productivity levels in textiles and fundamentally changing the nature of work for employees.
New technology also has led to increasingly technical training for workers throughout the industry. Computers and computer-controlled equipment aid in many functions, such as design, patternmaking, and cutting. Other emerging technologies which improve plant efficiency include wider looms, computerized equipment, and increased use of robotics to move material within the plant.
The domestic apparel industry also benefits from laws requiring that clothing worn by the Armed Services be produced in the United States—a law that was recently extended to cover uniforms worn by Transportation Security Administration officers. Although demand for these uniforms is greatly outweighed by a much larger consumer goods market, it nonetheless will continue to employ some textile workers in more labor-intensive segments, such as cut-and-sew apparel manufacturing.
Other domestically produced items tend to be custom or high-end items. One advantage the domestic industry has is its closeness to the market and its ability to react to changes in fashion more quickly than its foreign competitors. Also, as retailers consolidate and become more cost conscious, they require more apparel manufacturers to move toward just-in-time delivery systems, in which purchased apparel items are quickly replaced by new items directly from the manufacturer, rather than from a large inventory kept by the retailer.
Through electronic data interchange—mainly using barcodes—information is quickly communicated to the manufacturers, providing information not only on inventory, but also about the desires of the public for particular fashions.
Some apparel firms have responded to growing competition by merging with other apparel firms and by moving into the retail market. In addition to the production of garments they also are contracting out functions—for example, warehousing and order fulfillment—to concentrate on their strengths: design and marketing.
Computer-aided design systems have led to the development of "product life cycle management," under which potential new fashions can now be transmitted around the planet over the Internet. Such changes may help the apparel manufacturing industry meet the growing competition and continue to supply the Nation's consumers with garments at an acceptable cost.
Most factories run 24 hours a day, causing production workers to work evenings and weekends. Many operators work on rotating schedules, which can cause sleep disorders and other stress from constant changes in work hours. Overtime is common for these workers during periods of peak production.
Managerial and administrative support personnel typically work 5-day, hour weeks in office settings, although some of these employees also may work longer hours. Travel is an important part of the job for many managers and designers, who oversee the design and production of apparel. As more production moves abroad, foreign travel is becoming increasingly common. Work environment. Working conditions vary greatly. Production workers, including frontline managers and supervisors, spend most of their shifts on or near the production floor.
Some factories are noisy and can have airborne fibers and odors, but most modern facilities are relatively clean, well lit, and ventilated.
When appropriate, the use of protective shoes, clothing, facemasks, and earplugs is required. Also, new machinery is designed with additional protection, such as noise shields. Still, many workers in textile production occupations must stand for long periods while bending over machinery, and noise and dust still are a problem in some plants. Apparel manufacturing operators often sit for long periods and lean over machines.
New ergonomically designed chairs and machines that allow workers to stand during their operation are some of the means that firms use to minimize discomfort for production workers.
Another concern for workers is injury caused by repetitive motions. The implementation of modular units and specially designed equipment reduces such potential health problems by lessening the stress of repetitive motions.
Workers sometimes are exposed to hazardous situations that could produce cuts or minor burns if proper safety practices are not observed. The movement away from traditional piecework systems in apparel manufacturing often results in a significant change in working conditions.
Modular manufacturing involves teamwork, increased responsibility, and greater interaction among coworkers than on traditional assembly lines. In , there were , wage and salary workers in the textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries. The apparel manufacturing segment, particularly cut and sew apparel manufacturing, was the largest of the three employing , workers. Most of the wage and salary workers employed in the textile mills, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries in were found in California and in the southeastern States.
California, Georgia, and North Carolina, together accounted for about 44 percent of all workers. While most apparel and textile establishments are small, employment is concentrated in mills employing 50 or more persons. The textile and apparel industries offer employment opportunities in a variety of occupations, but production occupations accounted for 66 percent of all jobs; many of which are unique to the industry table 2.
Additional jobs found at the headquarters of some of these textile and apparel companies are generally classified in a separate industry. Production occupations. As in most manufacturing industries, the process of creating finished products is broken into a number of steps.
Workers in these industries usually repeat a small part of the manufacturing process, using tools and machines where needed. This allows manufacturers to create textile products from raw materials quickly and efficiently. They use computers to lay out the parts and draw in details to indicate the position of pleats, buttonholes, and other features, making adjustments as needed for different sizes. Extruding or forming machine operators set up and operate machines that extrude or force liquid synthetic material, such as rayon, fiberglass, or liquid polymers through small holes and draw out filaments.
Other operators put natural fibers, such as cotton or wool, through carding and combing machines that clean and align them into short lengths. Textile winding, twisting, and drawing-out machine operators make yarn from this material, taking care to repair any breaks. Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators control machines that wash, bleach, and dye yarn or finished fabrics.
Textile knitting and weaving machine operators place the yarn on machines that weave, knit, loop, or tuft it. Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders use patterns to prepare the pieces from which finished apparel will be made. Sewing machine operators join these pieces together, reinforce seams, and attach buttons, hooks, zippers, and accessories. In some cases, hand sewers may be employed to do specialty work and make adjustments.
Shoe machine operators and tenders tend machines used in making footwear. They perform a variety of functions, such as cutting, joining, and finishing. Shoe and leather workers and repairers may finish work that cannot be performed by a machine. Others are employed in cobbler shops, where they repair shoes and other leather products, such as luggage.
What Is Viscose: Understanding Your Fabrics
Man-made fibre , fibre whose chemical composition , structure, and properties are significantly modified during the manufacturing process. Man-made fibres are spun and woven into a huge number of consumer and industrial products, including garments such as shirts, scarves, and hosiery; home furnishings such as upholstery, carpets, and drapes; and industrial parts such as tire cord, flame-proof linings, and drive belts. The chemical compounds from which man-made fibres are produced are known as polymers , a class of compounds characterized by long, chainlike molecules of great size and molecular weight. Many of the polymers that constitute man-made fibres are the same as or similar to compounds that make up plastics, rubbers, adhesives, and surface coatings.
Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from natural sources such as wood and agricultural products that are regenerated as cellulose fiber. The many types and grades of rayon can imitate the feel and texture of natural fibers such as silk , wool , cotton , and linen. The types that resemble silk are often called artificial silk. Rayon is manufactured from natural cellulose, and hence is not considered to be synthetic.
Q and A: What Is Viscose? What is Rayon?
The present invention is a method for producing a ball-shaped fiber filler with a thermal insulation function by ball-shaped treatment of wool fibers and synthetic fibers, in particular, blended fibers mixed with polyester fibers, the ball-shaped fiber fillers produced through this and winter clothing using the same It is about. The hair that usually originates from the lower part of the hair follicles, especially the areas outside the skin, or the hair shaft, is called the wool fiber. Wool consists of a protein called keratin, or polypeptide, which has good elasticity and elasticity because the chain of polypeptide is not linear but spiral. And it is morphologically composed of three parts, cuticle, cortex, and menderer, and it is used as a heat insulating material because it has excellent hygroscopicity and warmth resistance. Synthetic fibers are chemically synthesized long molecules that form fibers from petroleum and coal. In other words, unlike fibers made from natural substances such as fibrin or protein, they are artificial fibers made entirely of chemicals. Typical types include nylon, polyester, acrylic, polyurethane, and polypropylene. Staple fibers are short fibers that are cut to a suitable length to spun continuous long fibers and spun into long fibers unless the chemical fibers are cut, which is called filament raw fibers are the only filament in natural fibers. The length to be cut depends on the purpose of spinning, but is usually about 1 to 8.
Fiber Selection for the Production of Nonwovens
Textile fibres or textile fibers see spelling differences can be created from many natural sources animal hair or fur, insect cocoons as with silk worm cocoons , as well as semisynthetic methods that use naturally occurring polymers, and synthetic methods that use polymer-based materials, and even minerals such as metals to make foils and wires. The textile industry requires that fibre content be provided on content labels. These labels are used to test textiles under different conditions to meet safety standards for example, for flame-resistance , and to determine whether or not a textile is machine washable or must be dry-cleaned. Common textile fibres used in global fashion today include:    . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Fibers are natural or chemical structures that can be spun into yarns. Yarns then can be weaved, knitted, or bonded into fabrics. Fiber properties and behavior are directly related to fabric performance and care. Learning about fibers and their characteristics will help you to understand fabrics better.
Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
The most significant feature of nonwoven fabric is made directly from fibers in a continuous production line. While manufacturing nonwovens, some conventional textile operations, such as carding, drawing, roving, spinning, weaving or knitting, are partially or completely eliminated. For this reason the choice of fiber is very important for nonwoven manufacturers.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Polyester Yarn Manufacturing Process
Purchasers often compare viscose rayon to cotton products. Confusion about this fiber often begins with confusion over what to call it. Viscose fiber has its origins in the UK, France, and here in America. An English company called Courtaulds Fibers delivered the first commercial viscose rayon in Later, in the U.
How Viscose Rayon Fabric Masquerades as Bamboo Clothing
But have you ever thought about what your clothes are made of? Most of the time good qualities in clothing are associated with brands and high expenses; consumers will automatically gravitate towards familiar stores that are well-known for their quality, pricing, style etc. It goes without thinking about where in the world the garment was made, or which type of fabric was used; natural or synthetic? We never really bother to research the reason our favourite clothes are just that, our favourites. Natural fabrics—such as cotton, silk and wool—are made of animal or plant-based fibres, while synthetics are man-made and produced entirely from chemicals to create fabrics like polyester, rayon, acrylic, and many others.
Adila Cokar. The ultimate guide to manufacturing your clothing designs, from topstitch to bottom hem Every clothing designer longs to make their mark on the world of fashion. Turning your design vision into a manufacturing reality, however, can be a daunting prospect. When it comes to launching a fashion line, production is one of the most challenging processes, and your success in the apparel business depends on learning every facet of it.
Not all bamboo clothing is what it seems. Conscientious clothiers are working to distinguish themselves from those who use materials, mainly viscose rayon fabric, that require toxic production methods. By Haniya Rae. Some of the biggest U.
The polymer pellets are then heated to transform the polymer into a liquid or fluid state. Afterwards, the liquid polymer is forced through a head that has small holes in it, producing small, continuous strands of fiber that are hardened back to solid polymer once they cool. The strands are then collected and cut to the desired fiber length. These cut fibers are called staple fibers since they have two ends.
Ему нужно было повернуть рубильник, и тогда отключилось бы электропитание, еще остававшееся в шифровалке. Потом, всего через несколько секунд, он должен был включить основные генераторы, и сразу же восстановились бы все функции дверных электронных замков, заработали фреоновые охладители и ТРАНСТЕКСТ оказался бы в полной безопасности. Но, приближаясь к рубильнику, Стратмор понял, что ему необходимо преодолеть еще одно препятствие - тело Чатрукьяна на ребрах охлаждения генератора.
Вырубить электропитание и снова его включить значило лишь вызвать повторное замыкание.
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Я любил тебя. Сьюзан.
Какое-то время в здании слышался только неровный гул расположенных далеко внизу генераторов. Сьюзан отчаянно пыталась встретиться взглядом со Стратмором. Коммандер. Северная Дакота - это Хейл.