Industrial commercial other leather products
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Textile and Leather Products
Animal furs and leather from tanned animal hides and skins have been used to make clothing for thousands of years. Fur and leather remain important industries today.
Fur is used to produce a variety of outer garments, such as coats, jackets, hats, gloves and boots, and it provides trim for other types of garments as well. Leather is used to make garments and can be employed in the manufacture of other products, including leather upholstery for automobiles and furniture, and a wide variety of leather goods, such as watch straps, purses and suitcases. Footwear is another traditional leather product.
Fur-producing animals include aquatic species such as beaver, otter, muskrat and seal; northern land species such as fox, wolf, mink, weasel, bear, marten and raccoon; and tropical species such as leopard, ocelot and cheetah. In addition, the young of certain animals such as cattle, horse, pig and goat may be processed to produce furs. Although most fur-bearing animals are trapped, mink in particular is produced on fur farms.
The major sources of leather are cattle, pigs, lambs and sheep. As of , the United States was the largest producer of bovine hides and skins. Goatskins are largely produced in China, India and Pakistan.
The tanning industry in the United States has been shrinking steadily since , while most surviving tanneries in northern Europe have diversified in order to reduce dependence on the footwear-leather market. Over one-third of all upholstery leather is destined for the vehicle industry and, according to LMC forecasts, the prospects for this subsector are fairly bright. The proportion of cars with leather upholstery has increased substantially through the s.
The demand for leather garments is determined primarily by income and fashion, while fashion particularly influences the changing demand for specific types of leather. For example, a strong demand for the softer, more supple sheepskin leather in fashion garments motivated the production of the fashionable garment nappa from sheepskins and cattle hides.
The major producers of mink pelts in were Canada, the Russian Federation, the Scandinavian countries and the United States. Leather employment also fell in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. In Botswana leather employment declined sharply in , then experienced a steep increase, doubling the level by There are several issues which will affect future production and employment in the leather, footwear and fur industries.
New technology, the relocation of footwear production to developing countries and environmental regulations in the tanning industry will continue to affect the skills and the health and safety of workers in these industries.
Gupta in the 3rd edition of this Encyclopaedia. Tanning is the chemical process that converts animal hides and skins into leather. The term hide is used for the skin of large animals e. Hides and skins are mostly by-products of slaughterhouses, although they may also come from animals that have died naturally or been hunted or trapped.
Tanning industries are usually located near stock-raising regions; however, hides and skins may be preserved and transported prior to tanning, so the industry is widespread. The hide is composed of three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layer. The dermis is used to make leather after the other layers have been removed using chemical and mechanical means. The tanning process uses acids, alkalis, salts, enzymes and tanning agents to dissolve fats and non-fibrous proteins and chemically bond the collagen fibres together.
Tanning has been practised since prehistoric times. The oldest system of tanning relies on the chemical action of vegetable material containing tannin tannic acid. Extracts are taken from the parts of plants that are rich in tannin and processed into tanning liquors. The hides are soaked in pits or vats of increasingly strong liquors until they are tanned, which may take weeks or months. This process is used in countries with low levels of technology.
This process is also used in developed countries to produce firmer, thicker leather for shoe soles, bags, cases and straps, although process changes have been introduced to shorten the time needed for tanning. Chemical tanning using mineral salts such as chromium sulphate was introduced during the late 19th century and has become the primary process to produce softer, thinner leather for goods such as handbags, gloves, garments, upholstery and shoe uppers.
Tanning may also be accomplished using fish oils or synthetic tannins. There is great variation in the scale and types of tanning facilities.
Some tanneries are highly mechanized and use closed automatic systems and many chemicals, whereas others still use largely manual work and natural tanning substances with techniques essentially unchanged over the centuries see figure The type of product required e. Process Description Leather production can be divided into three stages: preparation of the hide for tanning, which includes processes such as the removal of hair and adherent flesh; the tanning process; and the finishing process.
Finishing includes mechanical processes to shape and smooth the leather and chemical treatments to colour, lubricate, soften and apply a surface finish to the leather see figure All of these processes may take place in one facility, although it is common for leather finishing to be conducted at locations different from tanning in order to take advantage of transportation costs and local markets.
The implication is that it affects the likelihood of cross-contamination among the processes. Curing and shipment. Because raw hides and skins decay rapidly, they are preserved and disinfected prior to shipment to the tannery. The hide or skin is flayed from the carcass and then preserved by curing.
Curing can be accomplished by a variety of means. Curing by drying is suitable in regions where hot and dry climatic conditions prevail. Drying consists of stretching the hides on frames or spreading them on the ground in the sun. Dry-salting, another method of curing hides, consists of rubbing the fleshy side of the hide with salt.
Brine curing, or brining, consists of submerging the hides in a solution of sodium chloride to which naphthalene may have been added. Brining is the most common form of preservation in developed countries.
Prior to shipment, hides are generally treated with DDT, zinc chloride, mercury chloride, chlorophenols or other agents for disinfection. These substances may represent hazards both at the site of curing and on receipt at the tannery. The cured hides and skins are prepared for tanning by several operations, collectively referred to as beamhouse operations. First the hides are sorted, trimmed and then washed in vats or drums. Disinfectants such as bleaching powder, chlorine and sodium acid fluoride in the water prevent putrefaction of hides.
Chemicals such as caustic soda, sodium sulphide and surfactants are added to the water to accelerate soaking of dry-salted or dried hides. The soaked hides and skins are then limed by immersing in milk of lime to loosen the epidermis and hair roots and to remove other unwanted soluble proteins and fats. In another method, a depilatory paste of lime, sulphide and salt is applied to the flesh side of the skins in order to save hair and wool. The limed hides are unhaired to remove the loosened hairs and defleshed.
Epidermal debris and fine hair roots are mechanically removed by the scudding operation. These operations are followed by deliming and bating with buffering salts, such as ammonium sulphate or ammonium chloride, and the action of proteolytic enzymes neutralizes the high alkalinity of limed hides. In pickling, hides are placed in an acid environment consisting of sodium chloride and sulphuric acid. The acid is necessary because chrome-tanning agents are not soluble under alkaline conditions.
Vegetable-tanned hides do not need to be pickled. Many of the beamhouse operations are carried out by processing the hides in solutions using large pits, vats or drums. Solutions are piped or poured into the containers and later emptied through pipes or into open drainage channels in the work area.
The chemicals may be added to the containers by pipes or manually by workers. Good ventilation and personal protective equipment are needed to prevent respiratory and dermal exposure. Various substances may be used for tanning, but the main distinction is between vegetable and chrome tanning.
Vegetable tanning may be carried out either in pits or in rotating drums. Rapid tanning, in which high concentrations of tannins are used, is carried out in rotating drums. The chrome-tanning process most often used is the one-bath method, in which the hides are milled in a colloidal solution of chromium III sulphate until tanning is complete. A two-bath chrome-tanning process was used in the past, but this process involved potential exposure to hexavalent chromium salts and required more manual handling of the hides.
The two-bath process is now considered obsolete and is rarely used. Once tanned, the hide is further processed to shape and condition the leather. The hide is removed from the solution and excess water is removed by wringing. Chrome leather must be neutralized after being tanned. Splitting is the longitudinal division of wet or dry leather that is too thick, for articles such as shoe uppers and leather goods. Roll machines with cutting blades are used to further reduce the leather to the thickness required.
A large amount of dust may be released when the leather is split or shaved while dry. Re-tanning, colouring and fat-liquoring. After tanning, most leathers except sole leathers undergo colouring dyeing.
Generally, colouring is performed in a batch mode; and re-tanning, colouring and fat liquoring operations are all performed in sequence in the same drum with intermediate steps of washing and drying. Three major types of dyes are used: acid, basic and direct. Blends of dyes are used in order to obtain the exact shade desired, so the composition is not always known except by the supplier. The purpose of fat-liquoring is to lubricate leather to give it strength and flexibility.
Oils, natural fats, their transformation products, mineral oils and several synthetic fats are used. After drying, vegetable tanned leather is subjected to mechanical operations setting and rolling and given a final polish. The finishing process for chrome leather includes a series of mechanical operations and, normally, the application of a covering layer to the leather surface.
Staking is a mechanical beating operation used to make the leather soft. To improve the final appearance, the grain side of the leather is buffed using a sanding drum.
This process generates a tremendous amount of dust. A final surface finish is applied, which may contain solvents, plasticizers, binders and pigments. These solutions are applied by pads, flow coating or spraying. Some tanneries employ hand labour to apply the finish using pads, but this is usually carried out by machines. In flow coating, the solution is pumped into a reservoir above the conveyor carrying the leather and flows down onto it.
Water Use in the Leather Industry
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Leather goods are prized for their beauty and durability, but tanning leather uses and pollutes large amounts of water. With care, leather goods tend to be tougher a1nd more durable than nylon, canvas, or various imitation leather products, but their desirability transcends function and enters the world of beauty and style. But durability and beauty come at an environmental price. Although the total water footprint of the leather industry does not rival an industry like the hydroelectric power sector in absolute numbers, the leather tanning industry, for its size, is one of the most water-intensive industries across the globe, from the water used to raise animals to the water used in tanning and finishing processes.
Favini leather paper
The company is interested in establishing a long term cooperation in the form of subcontracting. The Polish company, located in south-west Poland was established in and is one of the innovative regional companies in the production of textile, ceramic and leather goods for the pet sector. The company is a manufacturer of luxury products mainly for dogs in the form: beds, bowls, travel mats, blankets and neck warmer. The products are designed in a way which facilitates cleaning and thus increases comfort for both dogs and their owners. The company guarantees unique designs and noteworthy style, handmade execution and careful selection of materials. In connection with increasing company competition on the market, the SME plans to introduce new products to their customers. Therefore, the company is looking for a subcontractor experienced in the production of leather products to conclude a contract for the production of small batches of goods. It consists of two skin colors. Leash length about 2m - both sides of the leash will have different leather tones.
China Leather Shoe Co (中國皮鞋公司)
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Future Assignments. Earnings in Fabricated Structural Steel Employment of Negroes in the Federal Government. Regular Jobs for Household Help.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Behind the Leather
Он вечно навязывал что-то коллегам, например морковный сок, и убеждал их, что нет ничего важнее безукоризненного состояния кишечника.
Хейл поставил масло на место и направился к своему компьютеру, располагавшемуся прямо напротив рабочего места Сьюзан.
Даже за широким кольцом терминалов она почувствовала резкий запах одеколона и поморщилась. - Замечательный одеколон, Грег. Вылил целую бутылку. Хейл включил свой компьютер.
Наибольшая скорость, которую она развивала, достигала 50 миль в час, причем делала это со страшным воем, напоминая скорее циркулярную пилу, а не мотоцикл, и, увы, ей не хватало слишком много лошадиных сил, чтобы взмыть в воздух. В боковое зеркало заднего вида он увидел, как такси выехало на темное шоссе в сотне метров позади него и сразу же стало сокращать дистанцию. Беккер смотрел прямо перед. Вдалеке, метрах в пятистах, на фоне ночного неба возникли силуэты самолетных ангаров.
Он подумал, успеет ли такси догнать его на таком расстоянии, и вспомнил, что Сьюзан решала такие задачки в две секунды. Внезапно он почувствовал страх, которого никогда не испытывал. Беккер наклонил голову и открыл дроссель до конца. Веспа шла с предельной скоростью.
Ах какие мы скрытные. А ведь у нас в Третьем узле нет друг от друга секретов. Один за всех и все за одного. Сьюзан отпила глоток чая и промолчала.
И снова постаралась держаться с подчеркнутым безразличием. - Он поздравил меня с обнаружением черного хода в Попрыгунчике, - продолжал Хейл.
- И назвал это победой в борьбе за личные права граждан всего мира. Ты должна признать, Сьюзан, что этот черный ход был придуман для того, чтобы ввести мир в заблуждение и преспокойно читать электронную почту.
Escortes Belen, - ответил мужчина. И снова Беккер изложил свою проблему: - Si, si, senor. Меня зовут сеньор Ролдан.
Или мы начинаем отключение, или же мы никогда этого не сделаем. Как только эти два агрессора увидят, что Бастион пал, они издадут боевой клич.
Нет смысла вбухивать миллиарды долларов в дешифровальный компьютер и одновременно экономить на тех, кто работает на этой превосходной технике. Сьюзан скинула туфли на низких каблуках от Сальваторе Феррагамо и блаженно погрузила обтянутые чулками ноги в густой шерстяной ковер. Высокооплачиваемые государственные служащие старались избегать демонстрации личного благосостояния. Для Сьюзан это не составляло проблемы: она была безмерно счастлива в своей скромной двухкомнатной квартире, водила вольво и довольствовалась весьма консервативным гардеробом.
Значит, это не Дэвид. Сьюзан почувствовала, что у нее перехватило дыхание. Она лишь хотела знать, что человек, которого она любит, в безопасности. Стратмор, в свою очередь, тоже сгорал от нетерпения, но подругой причине. Если Дэвид и дальше задержится, придется послать ему на помощь кого-то из полевых агентов АНБ, а это было связано с риском, которого коммандер всеми силами хотел избежать.
- Коммандер, - сказал Чатрукьян, - я уверен, что нам надо проверить… - Подождите минутку, - сказал Стратмор в трубку, извинившись перед собеседником. Он прикрыл микрофон телефона рукой и гневно посмотрел на своего молодого сотрудника.
Кто… кто вы. - Пройдемте с нами, пожалуйста. Сюда.