Fabrication commercial wine industry products
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Keeping Wines Clean and Fresh
This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds.
Currently, up to million tons of grapes Vitis vinifera L. Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo.
This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health. Grape crops are one of the main extended agro economic activities in the world with more than 60 million tons produced globally every year.
Thus, for example, 67 million tons of grapes were produced in , with almost 23 million tons corresponding to European contributors [ 1 ]. This production is mainly addressed to fresh consumption as table fruit, juice, and raisins.
In addition to these major uses, an important proportion of grape production is addressed to vinification processes, which constitutes a relevant traditional activity in several countries in Southwestern Europe i.
Wine production entails the generation of huge amounts of by-products mainly consisting in organic wastes, wastewater, emission of greenhouse gases, and inorganic residues [ 3 ]. After grape juice extraction the remaining pomace and stems are currently not valued as highly profitable waste, being mainly directed to composting or discarded in open areas potentially causing environmental problems [ 4 ].
Thus, the increasing demand for environment-friendly industrial production in addition to the challenge for gaining operational efficiency and minimizing by-product treatment cost in the wine industry has started to move this sector towards the adoption of preventative integrated waste approaches [ 5 ].
In this sense, the valorization of these wastes will provide further alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of winery activity. The potential of the valorization of these agro-industrial by-products is currently supported by the extensive information available on their content of healthy promoting phytochemicals with valuable activity concerning to the prevention of oxidative reactions, cardiovascular problems disease, inflammatory processes, and degenerative pathophysiological state developed in adults [ 6 , 7 , 8 ].
The absolute amount as well as the relative proportion of these beneficial compounds in vinification residues is conditioned by a myriad of factors including genetic load of the separate grape varieties, agro-climatic conditions, fertilization procedures, and soil properties, among others. On the other hand, the specific wine-making processes as well as the time between the generation of waste and valorization activities, as well as the characteristics of the recycling and recover procedures have a direct impact on the final concentration of phenolic compounds in the material and, therefore, on the potential as a source of bioactive phytochemicals [ 9 , 10 , 11 ].
The secondary metabolites including phenolic acids, flavanols, flavonols, anthocyanins, and stilbenes [ 12 ], differ in their solubility and recovery yield, which complicates their individual or targeted extraction.
In this sense, innovative and more efficient solvents and extraction methods such as high pressure and temperature extraction, supercritical fluids, or ultrasound and microwave assisted extractions have been reported in an attempt to enhance the efficiency of the extraction of phytochemicals from vinification residues [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ].
The main objective of the present work is to compile a comprehensive update and review on the composition and functional aspects of winery by-products, providing detailed information about the valuable bioactive phytochemicals of these multipurpose materials.
The technological advancements applicable for the potential recovery of valuable components, from wine-making industry wastes, have been also considered. The winemaking process is based on ancestral procedures, being more an art than a science. As a general rule, many artisanal practices are strongly rooted in the traditional vinification processes, as well as limited human resources or physical infrastructures during the production operations, limiting the update of the technological advances addressed to minimize waste production in several wine industries [ 3 ].
Therefore, implementation of waste management in the wine industry is a challenging task, making necessary the development of innovative and effective valorization procedures. In this sense, the growing demand of final products and the urgency of avoiding the environmental footprints of this agro-industrial activity have encouraged a tough legal framework to ensure the efficiency of the processes and to support the improvements of the recovery and recycling procedures.
The type of residues produced is closely dependent on the specific vinification procedures, which also affect the physic-chemical properties of the residual material, the characteristics of which determine its further use and specific valorization circuit in which it could be integrated.
The major residues from wine-making activity are represented by: organic wastes grape pomace, containing seeds, pulp and skins, grape stems, and grape leaves , wastewater, emission of greenhouse gases CO 2 , volatile organic compounds, etc.
In this regard, it is estimated that in Europe alone, The valorization of winemaking by-products is mainly represented by the elaboration of soil fertilizers as well as a fermentation substrate for biomass production and livestock feeds [ 19 , 20 , 21 ].
However, there are several constraints for current available options for reusing these unprofitable materials. For example, certain polyphenols present in winery by-products are known to be phytotoxic and display antimicrobial effects during composting, impairing their utilization for this purpose.
Regarding their use in livestock feed, some animals show intolerance to certain components, such as condensed tannins, which negatively affect digestibility [ 22 ]. Hence, their valorization as a source of bioactive phytochemicals of application in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries might constitute an efficient, profitable, and environment-friendly alternative for residues [ 23 ]. Grape pomace is the winery waste originated during the production of must grape juice by pressing whole grapes.
The reported differences on the relative proportion of grape pomace in comparison with the total amount of grapes used during the vinification process is due to the complete material considered as well as the incorporation or not of grape stems as part of the vinification residues when calculating the relative proportion [ 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 ].
The insoluble residues from this material have a lignin content ranging from By its composition, grape pomace stands out out as a suitable material to be employed in different processes, in particular the extraction of grape seed oil and polyphenols mainly anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, phenolic acids, and resveratrol , production of citric acid, methanol, ethanol, and xanthan via fermentation, and the production of energy by methanization.
Additional uses addressed to obtain alcoholic drinks by short fermentations and distillation, have been also described for this vinification waste [ 29 , 30 , 31 ]. Based on its polyphenolic content, several studies have reported a high antioxidant activity of this by-product, suggesting the winery-derived grape pomace as an interesting source for natural antioxidants with application in pharmacological, cosmetic, and food industries [ 27 , 32 , 33 ].
On this matter, again technological and material management could be responsible for the final composition of this vinification residue. Grape skin has been reported as a rich source of phenolic compounds, even though the final yield is dependent on the specific vinification process and the extraction method used solvent, temperature, time, and other factors [ 8 , 42 , 43 ].
The phytochemical profile of this agro-industrial by-product supports its use as an interesting source of bioactive phytochemicals and ingredients. Nevertheless, the lack of appropriate valorization processes makes it mainly used as compost or discarded in open areas potentially causing environmental problems.
Research on extraction conditions and new designs are needed for optimization of the release of phenolics from grape skins to maximize the properties of the wine pomace [ 43 ]. Grape clusters or grape stems constitute a residue of the winery industry partially applied as a source of astringent compounds, mainly represented by proanthocyanidins [ 44 ]. This material is removed before the vinification steps to avoid an excessive astringency of the wine or a negative effect on the organoleptic characteristics.
Therefore, their consideration within the vinification process is not absolutely addressed, although this constitutes an indubitable residue produced by the winery industries. The quantity of stems varies between 1. Currently, the commercial value of grape stems is low, being mainly used as animal feed or soil amendments. The scarce information available on grape stems composition indicates anyway that this could be a valuable and interesting source of dietetic fiber and antioxidants [ 23 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 ].
Concerning the phenolic composition of grape stems, their content has been shown in flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids, monomeric and oligomeric flavonols, and stilbenes [ 51 , 52 , 53 ]. In this regard, phenolics from grape stems have been shown to be approximately 5.
The current knowledge on the nutritional and phytochemical composition of this plant material should encourage further research that contributes to a greater understanding of its composition and specific outcomes for its application in developing innovative added-value products.
To date, leaves from Vitis vinifera L. The scarce information available on the grapevine leaves composition informs on their content in organic acids, phenolic acids, flavonols, tannins, procyanidins, anthocyanins, lipids, enzymes, vitamins, carotenoids, terpenes, and reducing or non-reducing sugars [ 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 ]. The rich and varied chemical composition of these leaves has led to a considerable interest in this plant material as a promising source of compounds with nutritional properties and biological potential.
Thus, grapevine leaves are employed in the production of food ingredients and its juice has been also recommended as an antiseptic for eyewash [ 59 , 60 ]. Wine lees are the residues formed at the bottom of receptacles containing wine, after fermentation, during storage or after authorized treatments, as well as the residue obtained following the filtration or centrifugation of this product.
Lees are mainly composed of microorganisms mainly yeasts , tartaric acid, inorganic matter, and phenolic compounds [ 61 ]. Lees play a major role in wine processing as they interact with poly phenolic compounds, directly related to the colour and other organoleptic properties, and adsorb them [ 62 ]. Moreover, lees liberate enzymes favouring the hydrolysis and transformation of poly phenolic substrates in phenolics with high added-value and interest like gallic acid or ellagic acid [ 63 ].
The scarce literature on this issue has reported the presence of anthocyanins 6— The well-established relationship between diet and health has prompted extensive research concerning the evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative content of bioactive phytochemicals in plant foods and generated side streams i.
These bioactive compounds are secondary metabolites produced by plants under stress conditions such as wounding, infections, and UV irradiation [ 65 , 66 ], and thus these compounds constitute a physiological tool of plants used to maintain health status. Bioactive phytochemicals present in winery by-products are mainly represented by poly phenols, which arise biogenetically from two main primary biosynthetic pathways: the shikimate and acetate pathways.
These compounds are structurally comprised of one or more aromatic rings bound to distinct moieties. Thus, their chemical structures include a range from simple molecules, such as phenolic acids, to complex polymeric structures like tannins [ 10 , 67 ].
Additionally in terms of their biological attributions, in grapes and winery by-products, these compounds play an important role in sensorial characteristics color, aroma, flavor, bitterness, or astringency , fostering new interests in health-promotion as a source of ingredients and additives or technological adjuvants [ 68 ], and thus are of great relevance to researchers, producers, processors, and consumers [ 69 ].
The various groups of phenolic compounds described so far in winery by-products are not uniformly distributed in the plant material, being distributed within subcellular compartments [ 70 , 71 ] as part of the different metabolic pathways involved in the plant cell defense to stress and pathogens [ 66 ]. In addition, phenolic compounds obtained from wine-industry residues belong to different classes, including phenolic acids hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids , flavonoids flavanols or flavanols, proanthocyanidins, flavones, and flavonols , and stilbenes [ 72 ], which have been reported as responsible for multiple biological effects [ 73 ].
The data available on total phenolic contents in vinification residues have been reported by analyzing wastes from different varieties grown under distinct agro-climatic conditions.
Grape pomace is one of the most extensively analyzed materials as a whole, as well as for its separate components, mainly skins and seeds [ 2 , 4 , 8 , 9 , 17 , 18 , 27 , 28 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 ]. Content in total phenolics in seed extracts assessed by colorimetric assays showed a wide range of variation between cultivars ranging from These variations have been attributed to the concomitant effect of a number of factors including the genetic potential for polyphenol biosynthesis, the maturation stage, and the agro-climatic conditions [ 76 , 77 ].
Total phenolics contents have been also estimated in grape stems residues by using colorimetric methods that allow recording of concentrations ranging from Distinct extraction procedures, grape varieties, and agro-climatic conditions contributed to differences in the quantified total polyphenols, including tannins and polymeric proanthocyanidins, with increased contents in stems and at least partially explaining the differences between the total phenolics reported in literature [ 22 ].
Phenolic acids include benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives, with hydroxycinnamic acids being the most abundant class in wine industry by-products.
These compounds frequently appear in a conjugated form, namely as glycosylated derivatives or esters of quinic acid, shikimic acid, and tartaric acid [ 72 ].
To date, the relative proportion of the phenolic acids in winery by-products compounds have been calculated by HPLC analyses, existing data on residues from red and white cultivars that evidence significant differences between grape types Table 1 and Table 2 and the distinct fraction of residues, namely stems, skins, seeds, pomace, or leaves.
The genotype appears to be the major factor influencing the relative concentrations of the different phenolic compounds [ 80 ]. Content in phenolic acids analytical technique employed in winery residues from different red varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Content in phenolic acids analytical technique employed in winery residues from different white varieties of Vitis vinifera L.
Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives identified so far, in this industrial residue, are mainly represented by p- hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechic acid, tannic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid derivatives, and syringic acid Table 1 and Table 2 [ 68 , 72 ]. In this regard, gallic acid is described as the most abundant hydroxybenzoic acid derivative in grape stems, skins and, seeds, followed by syringic acid in grape stems, and protocatecuic acid in grape seeds and skins [ 65 , 81 , 82 ].
Gallic acid is especially relevant due to its role as a precursor of hydrolysable tannins [ 83 ]. Interestingly, the analysis of grape seeds and pomace from red varieties revealed the protocatechuic acid as the most abundant hydroxybenzoic acid The differences concerning the phenolic profile in grape pomace and its individual constituents may be supported by the remaining grape pulp, as part of the grape pomace, which could provide additional phenolic content.
Seeds from white varieties showed high contents in both gallic acid and protocatechuic acid with no significant differences between them [ 84 ]. The analysis of the individual hydroxybenzoic acids in the wine by-products considered in this review Table 1 and Table 2 provides established differences between various residues concerning the agro-climatic conditions linked to their primary production.
Thus, Singleton et al. Hydroxycinnamic acids are found in all parts of grape fruit, with the highest recorded content being in the external tissues of the ripe fruit grape skins. The concentration in hydroxycinnamic acids generally decrease during the ripening process, however, the total amount of this phenolic class increases proportionally to the fruit size. The main hydroxycinnamic acids found in grapes and wines are caftaric, p -coutaric, and fertaric acids.
Caftaric and fertaric acids are mainly found in the trans- form, while a negligible fraction of p -coutaric acid has been found in the cis- form. This profile in phenolic acids of organic material derived from the vinification process showed a different composition depending on the specific waste considered and the grape type red or white Table 1 and Table 2.
Grape stems from both red and white varieties showed trans -caftaric acid as the most abundant compound in this class [ 65 , 81 ]. The trans -isomers presented higher concentrations than the cis -ones in all cases. In this regard, Singleton et al. Concerning to grape skins, the data available on the hydroxycinnamic acids in red and white varieties suggested the existence of critical differences.
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Wine making has been around for thousands of years. It is not only an art but also a science. Wine making is a natural process that requires little human intervention, but each wine maker guides the process through different techniques. In general, there are five basic components of the wine making process: harvesting, crushing and pressing, fermentation, clarification, and aging and bottling. Wine makers typically follow these five steps but add variations and deviations along the way to make their wine unique.
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When all good things go in, only greatness will come out. Making wine is an art form. Criveller gives you the best tools, so you can create a masterpiece. Brewing beer is as much Art as it is Science. Where the two meet, the magic happens.
All three tracks feature interactive sessions to facilitate greater subject emersion, insights, and value for the attendees, as expert panels of industry thought leaders and innovators will be sharing their ideas, information, and predictions to help better prepare for the coming year. Track: Winemaking - 1A. Track: Winemaking - 2A. Track: Winemaking - 3A.
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2019 Conference Overview
This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to million tons of grapes Vitis vinifera L. Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo.
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